STUDIES IN ENGINEERING AND EXACT SCIENCES 2024-04-09T14:19:39+00:00 Profa. MSc. Barbara Bonfim [email protected] Open Journal Systems <p>The <strong>STUDIES IN ENGINEERING AND EXACT SCIENCES (SEES)</strong> publish an academic-scientific article on topics related to the areas of Engineering and Exact Sciences, plus the subfields, Civil Engineering, Mining Engineering, Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Sanitary Engineering, Production Engineering, Nuclear Engineering, Transportation Engineering, Marine and Ocean Engineering, Aerospace Engineering, Biomedical Engineering, Mathematics, Probability and Statistics, Computer Science, Astronomy, Physics, Chemistry.</p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; background: white;">The SEES accepts contributions written in <strong style="box-sizing: border-box;">Portuguese</strong>, <strong style="box-sizing: border-box;">English</strong> or <strong style="box-sizing: border-box;">Spanish</strong>.</p> <p>DOI prefix of SEES: <strong>10.54021</strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">ISSN: <strong>2764-0981</strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Area of ​​knowledge: <strong>Engineering and Exact Sciences, plus the subfields</strong></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> Editorial 2024-01-02T19:38:12+00:00 Barbara Bonfim [email protected] <p>.</p> 2024-01-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 An investigation on the effects of using TMD for vibration control on the response of high-rise buildings to seismic excitation 2023-12-15T22:23:04+00:00 Ali Bousouar [email protected] Sallaheddine Harzallah [email protected] Bachir Nail [email protected] Imad Eddine Tibermacine [email protected] <p>This paper demonstrates that a tuned mass damper (TMD) is capable of effectively reducing vibration in high-rise buildings during seismic events. This study examines the effects of vibration control on the displacements and accelerations of controlled and uncontrolled buildings. It analyses their modal responses using an algorithm in MATLAB software. This study utilised instances of vibration control in models of a six-story and twelve-story skyscraper. The dynamic response of six-story buildings was assessed using two historical earthquakes, namely El Centro (1940) and Boumerdes (2003). The twelve-story skyscraper experienced two further significant earthquakes, namely Northridge (1994) and Kobe (1995). The building has undergone digital simulation, specifically modelling the displacement of the top story. Consequently, the structure equipped with the Tuned Mass Damper (TMD) system exhibits reduced displacement and acceleration compared to the structure without TMD. The implemented TMD system resulted in a displacement reduction of less than 45% in high-rise buildings subjected to seismic excitation.</p> 2024-01-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 STUDIES IN ENGINEERING AND EXACT SCIENCES Deep Feature Extraction with Cubic-SVM for Classification of Brain Tumor 2024-01-12T14:58:46+00:00 Mohammed Bourennane [email protected] Hilal Naimi [email protected] Elbar Mohamed [email protected] <p>Brain tumors (BT) are fatal and debilitating conditions that shorten the typical lifespan of patients. Patients with BTs who receive inadequate treatment and an incorrect diagnosis have a lower chance of survival. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often employed to assess the tumor. However, because of the massive quantity of data provided by MRI, early BT detection is a complex and time-consuming procedure in biomedical imaging. As a consequence, an automated and efficient strategy is required. The detection of brain tumors or malignancies has been done using a variety of conventional machine learning (ML) approaches. The manually collected properties, however, provide the main problem with these models. The constraints previously stated are addressed by the fusion deep learning model for binary classification of BTs that is presented in this study. The recommended method combines two different CNN (Efficientnetb0, VGG-19) models that automatically extract features and make use of the feature’s classification using a Cubic SVM classifier model. Additionally, the recommended approach displayed outstanding performance in various classification measures, including Accuracy (99.78%), Precision (99.78%), Recall (99.78%), and F1-Score (99.78%), on the same Kaggle (Br35H) dataset. The proposed strategy performs better than current approaches for classifying BTs from MRI images.</p> 2024-01-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 An efficient primal-dual interior point algorithm for linear optimization problems based on a new parameterized Kernel function with a logarithmic barrier term 2024-01-12T14:56:29+00:00 Fatima Boukhenchouche [email protected] El Amir Djeffal [email protected] <p>In this paper, we present a primal-dual interior point method for linear optimization problems based on a new Kernel function with on a new parameterized logarithmic barrier term. We prove that the proposed kernel function belongs to the eligible class. We derive the complexity bounds for large and small-update methods respectively.</p> 2024-01-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Effects of glass powder and Gypsum (Timchemt) on the thermal and mechanical properties of plaster bricks 2024-01-19T20:18:34+00:00 Samia Bouzouaid [email protected] Hachem Chaib [email protected] <p>The present research aims to study the effect of glass powder extracted from the glass waste disposal area in Ouargla (southern Algeria) on the thermo mechanical properties of plaster bricks. Therefore, density, compressive strength, flexural strength, thermal conductivity, and thermal resistance were measured in the laboratory using mixtures generated through the response surface methodology (RSM). This RSM technique was used to assess the influence of gypsum (95% – 100%) and glass powder (0% – 5%) on the behavior of hardened plaster bricks. The experimental results and RSM evaluation show a significant increase in compressive and flexural strength at the maximum and minimum levels of Timchemt and glass powder, and detailed scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses supported the results. Consequently, quadratic mathematical models were developed using the RSM method applied to the obtained results. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) yielded a (P-value &lt;0.05) and correlations exceeding 91% for all the studied parameters. Probability plots showed excellent correlation between predicted and experimental values, and the 2D and 3D contours of the RSM demonstrated that the fitted models work very well and can provide the appropriate relationship between the selected parameters and thermo mechanical properties.</p> 2024-01-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Improvement axial dispersion calculation in fibrous garnished fixed beds using the neural method 2024-01-22T18:01:33+00:00 Djamel Hassani [email protected] Faouzi Didi [email protected] Salah Hanini [email protected] Kamel Daoud [email protected] <p>To determine accurately the physical modeling of flow through porous media and / or in chemical reactors, especially in the field of low Reynolds numbers, it is essential to compute the coefficient of axial dispersion. In prior studies, we employed the neural method to compute axial dispersion within fixed beds with parallelepiped and spherical packings. In the present study we apply the same method of calculation on heterogeneous fixed beds with large anisotropy using data from Poirier and Trinh on fibrous beds. Such an investigation could be however very useful while one has the desire to predict the mixing process to characterize the axial dispersion in fixed beds of anisotropic particles andwhenexperimental measurements are not accessible and / or difficult to implement as for reactors and / or industrial complex porous media. To show also the robustness and applicability of this method, the calculation results obtained will be modeled using expressions similar to those proposed by Poirier and Trinh, so that we can compare our results with those obtained by these authors, under the same operating conditions. Furthermore, our study offers a comprehensive analysis encompassing all three examined fixed bed configurations, namely parallelepiped, spherical, and fibrous arrangements.</p> 2024-01-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Management stand-alone hybrid renewable energy system based on wind and solar with battery storage 2024-01-24T15:00:51+00:00 Abdelhak Kechida [email protected] Djamal Gozim [email protected] Belgacem Toual [email protected] Redha Djamel Mohammedi [email protected] Elbar Mohamed [email protected] <p>This paper describes the management of a standalone hybrid energy system (HES) based on two renewable sources. The sun, wind. and the battery supports the system. Solar panels and wind turbines (WT) connected with permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSG) were used for power production. Power converters have been used together with control algorithms for efficient power management. The filters were used to dispose of the largest amount of harmonics in the inverter. The proposed model provides a strategy for managing energy under various generating conditions. In order to save energy for a fixed load. Proposed hybrid accession simulated with MATLAB/Simulink</p> 2024-01-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 A case study on the evolution of rigid zones within the permanent two-dimensional Herschel-Bulkley fluid flow 2024-01-26T19:02:04+00:00 Messaouda Elalem [email protected] Hadi Taibi [email protected] Farid Messelmi [email protected] Abdelaziz Rabehi [email protected] <p>The formation and development of undeformed regions during the flow of viscoplastic fluids can significantly affect fluid flow behaviour. They can impair the efficiency and effectiveness of industrial operations that use viscoplastic fluids. This paper uses numerical analysis to examine the emergence of rigid zones during non-stationary Herschel-Bulkley fluid flow across a square plate. The impact of pressure and yield stress on the behaviour of rigid zones over time is explored, and the development of the rigid zone area is shown. This work produced mathematical correlations that describe the relationship between the area of rigid zones and both the time of flow and the yield stress, as well as the area of rigid zones and the stagnation time.</p> 2024-01-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Optimal placement of phasor measurement units using topology transformation method based on Grey Wolf optimization approach 2024-01-29T15:00:17+00:00 Ridha Djamel Mohammedi [email protected] Djamal Gozim [email protected] Abdelkader Azzeddine Laouid [email protected] Mohamed Elbar [email protected] <p>The optimal placement of phasor measurement units (PMUs) requires minimizing both the number of PMUs required and ensure that the whole power system is totally observable. To identify a power system as observable, it is necessary to know the voltages of all the buses in the power system. This paper suggests rules of selection for the topology transformation method, which implies a process of merging a zero injection bus and one of its neighboring buses. The selection of a bus chosen to merge with a zero injection bus will affect the result of the merging process. To determine the most appropriate bus to merge with the zero injection bus, the proposed method will use four rules designed to determine the minimum number of PMUs required to achieve full observability of the power system. The problem is formulated and solved by a grey wolf optimization (GWO) approach. The suggested GWO has been applied to the IEEE 14-bus, 24-bus, and New England 39-bus.</p> 2024-01-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Preparation and characterization of ultrafiltration membranes derived from recycled Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles 2024-01-29T18:31:39+00:00 Mohammed Amin Chemrak [email protected] Abdelkader Chougui [email protected] Mustapha Hafani [email protected] Sara Chourouk Benali [email protected] Djellal Adda Benattia [email protected] M’hammed Djennad [email protected] <p>The pressing need for sustainable practices and eco-friendly materials in the face of escalating environmental concerns has led to exploring the transformation of discarded polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles into functional ultrafiltration membranes. This research prepares and characterizes ultrafiltration membranes derived from PET bottle waste. The study involves collecting PET waste material and fabrication processes to develop asymmetric flat sheet membranes blended with varying proportions of hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG) using phase inversion techniques. Rigorous characterization employing SEM, EDS analysis, and water vapor permeability (WVP) assessments examine these membranes' structural, morphological, and performance attributes. The surface analysis elucidates a notable correlation between increased PEG content and larger pore sizes, consistent with prior studies involving PEG in membrane modifications. Additionally, incorporating PEG in the casting solution elevates water vapor permeability. Ultrafiltration experiments reveal differing rejection rates, with membrane M2 exhibiting enhanced anti-fouling properties despite reduced flux compared to M3 and M4. This research lays the groundwork for repurposing PET waste into selective membrane materials, emphasizing optimization strategies to enhance membrane quality and performance for diverse operational settings.</p> 2024-01-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Análise da acessibilidade de áreas internas e externas de ginásios de escolas públicas de Chapecó (SC) 2024-01-29T18:50:16+00:00 Vanessa Sabka Pigosso [email protected] Ariane Castegnera [email protected] Eliz Paula Manfroi [email protected] <p>A acessibilidade nas edificações é um direito fundamental do cidadão para uso com segurança dos espaços públicos ou privados. Todos os locais devem apresentar acesso para pessoas portadoras de deficiência ou com mobilidade reduzida. A falta de acessibilidade em ginásios esportivos dificulta a prática de esportes, bem como a possibilidade de participação em eventos realizados nestes ambientes. Neste contexto, na presente pesquisa, foi realizada a avaliação da acessibilidade das áreas internas e externas de ginásios de 10 escolas públicas do município de Chapecó (SC), sendo 6 estaduais e 4 municipais. Para o desenvolvimento deste estudo foram realizadas visitas técnicas e aplicação de um <em>cheklist </em>com base nas normas técnicas brasileiras sobre acessibilidade. Os resultados mostraram que nenhum ginásio avaliado apresentou acessibilidade total. Ainda os ginásios das escolas estaduais apresentaram melhor desempenho de acessibilidade quando comparados com os ginásios das escolas municipais. A falta de acessibilidade nas áreas internas e externas dos ginásios das escolas públicas do município de Chapecó (SC) dificulta a participação de todos os cidadãos nestes locais, não garantindo a liberdade de locomoção em segurança.</p> 2024-01-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 A novel methodology for transformer winding defects diagnosis based on its measured frequency response signal impedance morphology interpretation 2024-02-01T15:00:42+00:00 Moustafa Sahnoune Chaouche [email protected] Faouzi Didi [email protected] Abderrazak Amara [email protected] Rachid Sahnoune Chaouche [email protected] Hamza Houassine [email protected] <p class="Dadosautores">This article proposes the characteristics study of the key parameters of power transformer winding (viz. the equivalent capacitance and the equivalent inductance) extracted from the frequency response analysis (FRA) of the winding. However, the FRA curve of the winding can be divided into three frequency ranges (low, medium, and high), where; the low and the high frequency response (LFR and HFR) ranges represent the inductive and capacitive effects of the winding respectively, which can establish best analysing and interpreting tool of the winding response behaviour to diagnose their failures. Furthermore, real axial deformations were carried out on a winding constructed for this study. In addition, the variation of the equivalent inductance and capacitance obtained from the impedance curve in the LFR and HFR ranges were analysed to locate and evaluate the faulty states with the reference state of the winding. Consequently, the proposed method provides a tool for locating and assessing the internal faults severity in power transformer windings.</p> 2024-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Time history analysis of structures under multi-support excitation by state-space method 2024-02-05T19:07:54+00:00 Mohamed Guesmi [email protected] Nassira Belkheiri [email protected] Mohamed Lakhder Guesmi [email protected] <p class="Dadosautores">Because of the variety of methods to simulate the dynamic behaviors of the structure under earthquake loading trying to approach the reality. This paper provides a contribution to simulate this behavior using three methods, mainly starting with state space. Secondly, we compare it with the finite element method (Duhamel integral and direct method of Newmark), taking into consideration the effect of Non-uniform excitation in the supports. The obtained results proves the three methods are efficient and very close to each other for simple structures but in term the computing time, the state space method is faster than the others. At the end, add a big structure to test the limits of each method.</p> 2024-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 An investigation on the shear deformation under bending conditions of cantilever FGM beams using a new polynomial shear function 2024-02-06T12:16:04+00:00 Aissa Boussouar [email protected] Attia Bachiri [email protected] Bachir Taallah [email protected] Ali Zaidi [email protected] <p>In this paper, a static analysis to establish a mathematical model using high order bending theories considering shear strains in displacement fields which have not been taken into account by other theories for functionally graded material (FGM) cantilever beams under bending. A new polynomial shear function is used in this investigation, when satisfied the stress-free boundary conditions. These theories do not require a shear correction factor and consider a hyperbolic shape function. Material properties are assumed to vary in the thickness direction, a simple power-law distribution in terms of volume fractions of constituents is considered. Illustrative cases, a cantilever FGM beam subjected to a concentrated shear force at the free end, and also as a cantilever FGM beam with uniformly distributed load are presented the originality of this research work, in this investigation. The mathematical model is established by differential equations which are derived by the principle of virtual work. Equilibrium equations and boundary conditions are introduced. The solution model is based on a variation approach (integrals) to predict the field component of displacements and the basic constitutive laws. The solution of the analytical model is presented. The results in terms of displacement fields including rotation of the section, and shear stresses, predicted from&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; the proposed model, are presented.</p> 2024-02-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Quantification of water losses and performance analysis of drinking water supply systems in northern Algeria - case study in the Medea region 2024-02-06T17:24:15+00:00 Lassaad Gouacem [email protected] Rachid Masmoudi [email protected] <p>This study was prompted by the observation of the great difficulties that affect the public provision of drinking water in Algeria. The analysis of measurements revealed the performance level of the tested systems as well as the rates of drinking water losses rates in the Medea region (located 60 km southwest of Algiers). The small number of water meters and an intermittent supply make it difficult to quantify water volume losses. This article presents an analysis of the demand for drinking water and the supply systems performance, based on an extrapolation from a sample of consumers on whom data are available. This approach to exploring the current state of the drinking water system, its functioning and behaviour, has made it possible to draw up a report on this system’s reliability even in the almost total absence of metering of the consumed volumes. It will also help appreciate the quality of service and contribute to establishing relevant database on the water system and its service.</p> 2024-02-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Dispositivos tecnológicos para avaliações ergonômicas das atividades desempenhadas em atividades laborais: uma revisão sistemática 2024-02-09T11:39:51+00:00 Davi Avelino da Silva [email protected] Luiz Philipi Calegari [email protected] Eugenio Andrés Diaz Merino [email protected] Gisele Schmidt Diaz Merino [email protected] <p>As tecnologias relacionadas à Internet das Coisas <em>(Internet of Things – IoT</em>) estão criando novas interações sociotécnicas entre dispositivos tecnológicos e seus usuários de modo a melhorar a qualidade e bem-estar dos trabalhadores. Apesar do crescimento no interesse pelas tecnologias IoT, a literatura ainda carece de informações sobre dispositivos tecnológicos direcionads a avaliações ergonômicas de atividade laborais. Por meio de uma Revisão Sistemática de Literatura, o presente estudo possui o objetivo de identificar os dispositivos tecnológicos presentes na literatura de avaliação ergonômica dos profissionais. Foram identificados 67 artigos pertinentes ao tema e considerados para revisão. A partir dos resultados obtidos, destaca-se a relevância do número de estudos direcionados para aplicação dos <em>dispositivos Inertial Measurement Units</em> (IMUs), sobretudo para avaliação de profissionais no ambiente industrial. Como principal contribuição, o presente estudo reporta oportunidades de pesquisa relacionadas a aplicações dos dispositivos tecnológicos estudados em áreas profissionais ainda pouco exploradas.</p> 2024-02-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Implementing distributed collaboration and applying the YOLO algorithm to robots 2024-02-14T10:56:23+00:00 Wissam Hanafi [email protected] Mohammed Tamali [email protected] <p>Recently, the world has witnessed the development of artificial intelligence and robot programming, which have enabled robots to work together to perform specific assigned tasks while overcoming obstacles in the environment. Robots can now operate independently of each other. In this research, four-wheeled robots were created in webots and placed in different environments in Gazebo. These robots are associated with LIDAR and Kinect cameras. Due to the distributed collaboration between robots, a robot cannot traverse a path that it has previously traversed. The three robots are given the same goal, and the first robot to reach the goal signals the end of the mission to the remaining robots and learns about the surrounding objects on the way to the goal. Therefore, the YOLO algorithm was used (You Only Look Once). This is one of the best algorithms for detecting objects in their environment. Regarding the results obtained in the simulation, the robot performed all the assigned tasks.</p> 2024-02-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Verification and identification of the speech signal using algebraic analysis and DWT 2024-02-14T16:36:50+00:00 Amraoui Abdelkader [email protected] Saadi Slami [email protected] <p>We presented a flowchart, of a new approach that relies on the mathematical operations of matrices and to verify and identifies the speaker, this is a new method difficult to detect by attackers, and this is due to the difficulty to determine its base matrix used in the speaker verification and identification process, Although there are many artificial intelligence programs that can imitate voices and generating false conversations, which poses security and hacking problems.</p> 2024-02-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Effect of ultrathin glass substrate on the stability of perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 layer 2024-02-19T12:51:05+00:00 Aicha Aziza Ayad [email protected] Abdelkrim Naas [email protected] Noureddine Selmi [email protected] Omar Meglali [email protected] <p>In this work, we investigated the effect of two different substrate types on the structural and optical characteristics of the CH<sub>3</sub>NH<sub>3</sub>PbI<sub>3</sub> perovskite layer: soda-lime glass (SLG) and borosilicate glass (UTG). Subsequently, we examined the samples' stability by measuring their absorbance following 120 hours of exposure to the local ambient conditions in Djelfa, Algeria. The absence of OH groups in the UTG substrate as revealed by FTIR may be the reason for the notable impact of the UTG substrate over the SLG substrate on perovskite characteristics. This absence indicates that the inorganic element's influence on the perovskite significantly diminishes, and in this instance, the matrix endures for an extended period within the local metrological restrictions.</p> 2024-02-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Determinação da estrutura cristalográfica de nanopartículas metálicas 2024-02-20T11:38:09+00:00 Amaro Vinícius Medeiros Ferreira [email protected] Cléria de Lourdes Teodoro Pancotti [email protected] Amanda Santos Abreu [email protected] Enzo Lucas Breancini [email protected] Alexandre Pancotti [email protected] <p>Neste artigo será apresentado resultados envolvendo determinação estrutural de nanopartículas metálicas. A formação de nanopartículas metálicas suportadas de 4 ML de espessura foi obtida por aquecimento de um filme de Rh sobre uma superfície ordenada de óxido de cromo. A estrutura cristalográfica foi investigada por X-ray Photoelectron Diffraction (XPD) e Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED). A composição e a estrutura eletronica foi verificada por X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Para modelar os resultados experimentais foi utilizado simulação de espalhamento múltiplo de elétrons. Neste trabalho foi observado que as nanoparticulas de Rh cresceram seguindo o empacotamento do substrato e um aumento no parâmetro de rede do Rh. Também foi observado uma pequena contração na primeira distância interplanar e uma expansão na segunda distância interplanar.</p> 2024-02-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Efficient control of three-phase cascaded multilevel Z-Source inverter using SHEPWM technique 2024-02-21T13:51:39+00:00 Benyoucef Kaddour [email protected] Noureddine Henini [email protected] Abdelhalim Tlemçani [email protected] Mohamed Allali [email protected] <p>This paper presents an enhanced control strategy for three-phase cascaded multilevel Z-source inverters, focusing on the implementation of Selective Harmonic Elimination Pulse Width Modulation (SHEPWM) techniques to improve efficiency. Z-source inverters are gaining prominence in various applications due to their inherent advantages, such as increased voltage boost capability and inherent shoot-through protection. However, achieving optimal control in cascaded multilevel configurations poses challenges that this study seeks to address. The proposed control strategy optimizes the switching patterns of the inverter, thereby enhancing its overall performance. It allows for precise control over the output voltage and reduces harmonic distortion, ensuring the inverter operates efficiently across varying load conditions. The research methodology involves a comprehensive analysis of the proposed technique, including its mathematical modeling and simulation using advanced software tools. Performance metrics such as total harmonic distortion, efficiency, and transient response are evaluated to quantify the improvements achieved. The results obtained demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed control strategy. This method significantly reduces harmonic distortion in the output voltage, leading to improved power quality. Furthermore, the efficiency of the inverter is enhanced, making it suitable for applications demanding high-performance power conversion.</p> 2024-02-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 A framework to quantify battery degradation in residential microgrid operate with maximum self-consumption based energy management system 2024-02-28T18:40:01+00:00 Abderrahman Bensalem [email protected] Belgacem Toual [email protected] Mohamed Elbar [email protected] Mohamed Khaleel [email protected] Zakaria Belboul [email protected] <p>Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) is a crucial component for improving the performance of Hybrid Renewable Energy System (HRES) based microgrid. This paper aims to quantify the battery capacity fade due to battery charging/discharging cycling in a DC microgrid operate with well-known rule-based energy management system, Hence, based on a reduced-order physical model for Lithium-ion battery degradation, a framework was established to assess the state of health (SOH) of the battery. The simulation results show that limiting charging/discharging cycling help in prevent high-capacity loss, however its effect on the self-consumption and self-sufficiency in residential remains debatable in the future.</p> 2024-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Multi-objective optimization of machining conditions by geometric programming 2024-03-06T12:30:40+00:00 Mohamed Djennane [email protected] Rachid Benbouta [email protected] Allaoua Kherraf [email protected] <p>In metal cutting processes, cutting conditions have an influence on reducing the production cost and time and deciding the quality of a final product. This paper outlines the development of an optimization strategy to determine the optimum cutting parameters for turning processes. Two objective functions are simultaneously optimized under a set of practical of machining constraints, the first objective function is production cost and the second one is the production time. The optimal values of the cutting conditions are found based on the objective function developed for the typified criterion by using a non-linear programming technique called “geometric programming”. In the optimization procedure, the objective functions are subject to constraints of maximum and minimum feed rates and speeds available, cutting power, tool life, deflection of work piece, axial pre-load and surface roughness. An example is presented to illustrate the procedure of this technique.</p> 2024-03-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Fosfato de cálcio intercalado com silano - síntese, caracterização e complexação de Ni(II) 2024-03-08T18:28:09+00:00 Giovanna França de Araujo [email protected] Henrique David João Pabis [email protected] Angélica Machi Lazarin [email protected] <p>A finalidade deste trabalho é o desenvolvimento de um material capaz de adsorver íons metálicos potencialmente corrosivos as partes metálicas de automóveis presentes em combústiveis. Essa nova tecnologia está baseada na síntese do composto cristalino lamelar fosfato de cálcio (CaP) que foi sintetizado adicionando-se uma solução de CaCl<sub>2</sub>.2H<sub>2</sub>O a uma solução de fosfato de amônio dibásico. Na intercalação, o 3-aminopropiltrimetoxisilano (3APTS) foi inserido entre as lamelas, gerando o composto CaP/3APTS. A análise elementar de cálcio e fosfóro para o CaP foram 26,3 e 17,2 %, respectivamente. A quantidade do 3APTS intercalado no CAP foi de 2,3 % de átomos do nitrogênio, que corresponde 1,64 mmol g<sup>-1</sup>. Na micrografia do CaP e do composto intercalado observou a presença de placas paralelas mostrando que a morfologia do cristal é lamelar. Como aplicação o íon metálico divalente, níquel, foi adsorvidos neste material. A adsorção foi obtida a partir da reação do composto intercalado com NiCl<sub>2 </sub>&nbsp;em meio etanólico. A isoterma de adsorção foi ajustada à equação modificada de Langmuir, obtendo-se a linearização da mesma. Através do coeficiente angular calculou-se o valor do coeficiente de seletividade que foi de G = 534 dm<sup>3 </sup>mol<sup>-1</sup> e pelo coeficiente linear obteve-se o valor do número médio de ligantes imobilizados e simultaneamente coordenados a um íon Ni(II) ( &nbsp;= 2). O valor da capacidade máxima de adsorção de Ni(II) foi de 0,69 mmol.g<sup>-1</sup>. Os experimentos de pré-concentração e recuperação de uma solução contendo o íon metálico mostraram que a coluna reteve e recuperou o íon metálico Ni(II) com quase 100% de eficiência.</p> 2024-03-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Novel 2-D cascade ladder-lattice structure recursive digital filters 2024-03-13T13:57:33+00:00 Mohamed Zitouni [email protected] Thameur Obeidi [email protected] Mohamed Elbar [email protected] Ahmed Chinoun [email protected] <p>We present in this paper a novel cascade ladder-lattice structure of two-dimensional (2-D) recursive digital filters; this cascade based on two delay units M and N and a basic lattice section. Our new realization has a minimal number of basic lattice sections. Using a transfer function representation; the matrix representations for the basic lattice sections are proposed and used to derive the transfer functions of the realized 2-D digital lattice filters. The theory and transfer functions of the realized 2-D lattice Digital filter are derived. We use the 2-D Givone–Roesser’s state space model to verify the minimal realization of the proposed 2-D recursive digital filte; this later gives matrix-vectors A, b, c and a scalar d which are derived. As result, the dimension of the 2-D generalized state space model is minimal. Finally, several design examples are provided for conducting illustration.</p> 2024-03-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Improving and evaluating the performance of a real photovoltaic pumping system for agricultural irrigation purposes in a desert environment at Ghardaia, Algeria 2024-03-14T16:52:13+00:00 Abdelhak Bouchakour [email protected] Borni Abdelhalim [email protected] Noureddine Benbaha [email protected] Zaghba Layachi [email protected] Fazzani Amor [email protected] Seif Eddine Boukebbous [email protected] Abdelaziz Rabehi [email protected] <p>Algeria has one of the highest solar resources in the world. The availability of this significant solar energy can make photovoltaic (PV) water pumping applications a very attractive solution for many uses, including irrigation of agricultural areas, village water supply and domestic uses. The cost of water pumped by a PV pumping system is directly linked to the efficiency and reliability of the different elements constituting the system and also to the solar irradiation available at the installation site. Consequently, it is necessary to improve the reliability and efficiency of the PV generator in order to extract the maximum possible power at all times in order to achieve the most reliable and economic operation. On a real well of 25 m height in desert and semi-arid climate at the Sebseb site, Ghardaïa, Algeria, a typical PV pumping system for irrigation purposes is studied and optimized using two conventionels methods, a P&amp;O method and a incremental method.These methods are essentially based on the assessment of water needs to irrigate 70 palm trees, the data on solar irradiation and the average temperature for the studied site (Sebseb, Ghardaia).</p> 2024-03-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 The impact of fibres reinforcement on the thermal characteristics of lime-stabilised compressed earth blocks 2024-03-14T16:52:15+00:00 Fidjah Abdelkader [email protected] Oussama Naimi [email protected] Rabehi Mohamed [email protected] Kezarane Cheikh [email protected] Zitouni Tidjani Ahmed [email protected] Tayeb Sakhi [email protected] Dahmani Roqiya [email protected] Chettah Mahieddine [email protected] <p>In civil engineering, the use of fibers in construction has spread recently, because of their many benefits in terms of increasing the cohesion of buildings and their thermal insulation. In addition to having several good physical and mechanical properties. Thermal insulation has become an important thing in the field of construction. Because it is linked to increasing the lifespan of buildings and predicting their thermal behavior. It includes increasing energy efficiency and reducing its costs. Fibers are used to increase thermal insulation, because it creates voids inside the structures that are within its content, and thus impedes the transfer of heat, regardless of the type of transfer by convection, radiation, or conductivity. This study aims to determine the amount of thermal insulation in compressed earth bricks with dimensions of 20 × 10 × 10 cm<sup>3</sup>, to which palm fibers and glass are added in different proportions: 0%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4% and 0.5%.In earthen bricks composed of soil, sand and lime. The study includes the physical, mechanical and thermal properties of these bricks. We focus on thermal insulation in the best samples in terms of hardness. Laboratory samples were taken according to standard experiments in university laboratories. Preliminary results showed a decrease in bulk density between 6% and 8.34%, an increase in mechanical stresses between 42.85% and 45.45%, and an increase in thermal insulation between 26% and 29%. These results give us an overview of the impact of using fibers in construction in terms of increasing weight bearing and predicting the amount of thermal insulation.</p> 2024-03-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Fuzzy predictive controller for trajectory tracking of a wheeled mobile robot 2024-03-14T19:33:33+00:00 Mohamed Elamine Hedroug [email protected] El Khansa Bdirina [email protected] Kamel Guesmi [email protected] <p>This paper presents a mobile robot control methodology that uses a fuzzy predictive control system to accurately track given paths. It is specifically designed for scenarios of two successive and distinct paths within a shared reference trajectory. Through the combination of fuzzy logic and predictive control methods, the system aims to significantly enhance tracking accuracy. Modelling the system, using a T-S fuzzy system provides a comprehensive model framework to optimize the tracking process. Furthermore, the use of a well-tuned fuzzy system facilitates dynamic adjustments of the weighting matrices of the predictive controller. The combination of fuzzy logic and predictive techniques results in a robust control system capable of handling complex tracking tasks. The simulation results describe the accuracy, robustness, and efficiency of the suggested control strategy. The system is particularly effective in scenarios with two successive paths within a shared reference trajectory, where precise tracking is essential. This approach is crucial for mobile robots or vehicles navigating complex, changing environments.</p> 2024-03-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Modified SRF theory based on active power filter with quasi-Z-source inverter single-stage PV system 2024-03-16T15:09:49+00:00 Ahmed Elottri [email protected] Lakhdar Mzouz [email protected] Abdellah Kouzou [email protected] Ali Teta [email protected] Noureddine Nekbil [email protected] Fatima Boutouta [email protected] <p>The proliferation of non-linear loads employing semiconductor-based power converters has led to a widespread challenge within electrical grids. This challenge pertains to the degradation of power quality (PQ) due to the emergence of harmonic currents generated by these particular loads. Consequently, numerous researchers have advocated for the adoption of shunt active power filters (APF) to mitigate the impact of these harmonics. This article introduces an enhanced methodology aimed at identifying compensation currents for a shunt active power filter (SAPF). The SAPF operates within a single-stage photovoltaic (PV) system utilizing a quasi-Z-source inverter (qZSI). The primary goals of this technique are to achieve a reduction in total harmonic distortion (THD) by less than 3 percent and to decrease the peak value of the DC-link voltage. The proposed system's efficacy is validated through an extensive simulation conducted using the Matlab/Simulink environment.</p> 2024-03-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Influence of calcined dam mud on the thermal conductivity of binary and ternary self-compacting concrete mixtures using the equivalent mortar method 2024-03-16T15:09:38+00:00 Hind Hidayet Sallai [email protected] Nasr Eddine Bouhamou [email protected] Hafida Marouf [email protected] Abdelkadir Belghit belghit_abdelkadeí Abdulkadir Cüneyt Aydin [email protected] <p>Reducing energy consumption in concrete buildings requires cement-based structural materials that have low thermal conductivity. Moreover, low thermal conductivity is a crucial property of building materials used for thermal insulation to ensure the comfort of building occupants. The research evaluates the effect of using calcined mud (CM) and natural pozzolan (Pz) on the thermal conductivity of self-compacting concrete (SCC). To optimise SCC formulations, the equivalent concrete mortar method has been used. This communication mainly focuses on the equivalent self-compacting concrete mortars (ESCCMs). The current study consists of ten formulations: one control (based on Portland cement) and nine others containing binary and ternary systems of Portland cement, calcined mud, and natural pozzolan with 10%, 20%, and 30% replacement rates . The mixtures were prepared using tests of cement paste and equivalent mortar in a fresh state. Afterwards, they were assessed based on their compressive strength at 14, 28, 90, and 180 days and their thermal conductivity at 28 and 90 days in the hardened state. The self-compatibility, the thermal conductivity, and the mechanical performance results obtained by relevant tests on ESCCMs prove that the ternary systems (Portland cement, CM, and Pz) open up many techno-economic development avenues in SCC applications to be explored.</p> 2024-03-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Model order reduction, a novel method using krylov sub-spaces and genetic algorithm 2024-03-20T15:13:04+00:00 Abdesselam Tamri [email protected] Amel Baha Houda Adamou-Mitiche [email protected] Lahcène Mitiche [email protected] <p>Model Order Reduction (MOR) of complex and large systems in Electrical engineering, continuous to be an attractive field for Engineers and Scientists over the last few decades, this complexity of models makes the control designs and simulation using Computer Aided Design (CAD) more and more difficult and consuming a lot of time. There for, accurate, robust and fast algorithms for simulation are needed. The goal of MOR is to replace the original system by an appropriate reduced system which preserves the main properties of the original one such that stability and passivity. Several analytical MOR techniques have been proposed in the literature over the past few decades, to approximate high order linear dynamic systems like Krylov sub-space techniques and SVD (Singular Value Decomposition) techniques. However, most of these techniques lead to computationally demanding, time consuming, iterative procedures that usually result in non-robustly stable models with poor frequency response resemblance to the original high order model in some frequency ranges. Recently a set of new techniques based on Artificial Intelligence (AI) were proposed in [1] for MOR. This article considers the problem of model order reduction of Linear Time In varying (LTI) systems. It is described by first and second order ordinary differential equations model. A tow steps method for model order reduction of LTI systems is proposed here, which combined features of an analytic technique (Krylov approach) and an AI technique (Genetic Algorithm). In the first step, the size of the original model is reduced to an intermediate order, using an analytical technique based on Krylov sub-spaces. In the final step of the reduction process, an AI approach based on Genetic Algorithm (GA) is applied to obtain an optimized nominal model.</p> 2024-03-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Effects of acidic environments and sorptivity on high-performance concrete containing natural pozzolan and limestone filler 2024-03-20T15:12:52+00:00 Tarek Hadji [email protected] Ahmed Attia [email protected] Taha Hocine Douara [email protected] Salim Guettala [email protected] Michèle Queneudec [email protected] <p class="Dadosautores">Even though high-performance concrete (HPC) is a more robust type of concrete, acidic environments can still have a negative impact on it.<span style="color: #1f1f1f; background: white;"> Acids can dissolve other </span><span style="background: white;">components in the concrete as well, leading to a loss of material and increased porosity. This makes the concrete even more susceptible to further degradation. Acidic environments attack the calcium hydroxide (CH), a key component of the cement paste that binds the aggregate in concrete. This reaction weakens the structure and reduces the overall strength of the concrete. </span>The purpose of this study is to assess how HPC containing natural pozzolan (NP) and limestone filler (LF) responds to acidic environments and sorptivity. The cement (PC) was replaced by NP and LF in different mass proportions. The mixtures HPCC (100% PC), HPC18 (10%LF + 90%PC), HPC7 (20%NP + 80%PC), and HPC14 (5%LF + 10%NP + 85%PC) were prepared. The sorptivity was evaluated by measuring the sorptivity coefficient (S, cm*s<sup>-0.5</sup>) after 28 days of submersion in distilled water. HPC specimens were submersed in distilled water, 5% sulfuric acid (H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub>), and 5% hydrochloric acid (HCl) for up to 180 days in order to test their acid resistance. Visual inspection and changes in mass were used to evaluate the specimens' resistance to acid attack. The results showed that replacing PC with LF and NP reduced the sorptivity of HPC. Substituting 10% of PC mass with LF increased the HPC's resistance to sulfuric acid. However, substituting the PC with NP and/or LF reduced the HPC's resistance to hydrochloric acid. According to visual inspection and mass losses, the sulfuric acid was more aggressive than hydrochloric acid.</p> 2024-03-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 On the of seawater desalination environmental impacts and brine treatment based challenges and mitigation measures in Algeria 2024-03-20T15:12:41+00:00 Oussama Naimi [email protected] Lousdad Abdelkader [email protected] Fidjah Abdelkader [email protected] Hassiba Bouabdesselam [email protected] Mohammed Chemsedine Ezzine [email protected] Belatoui Abdelmalek [email protected] Mokhtari Mohamed [email protected] Smain Nour Elhouda [email protected] <p>In this paper the environmental impacts of seawater desalination is investigated and highlighted. Indeed despite the various benefits of desalination there is growing apprehension about the potential negative environmental effects it may bring and generate. Both during the plant construction and its operation service. There is the possibility of leading and causing adverse environmental impacts. A significant concern with desalination is the co-produced and generated waste known as 'brine' or 'reject,' which contains high salinity as well as chemical residuals which are released into the marine environment. Viable and cost-effective brine management systems are necessary to mitigate the negative impact of brine, also referred to as concentrate, which is a by-product of the desalination process. This high salinity substance poses a threat to the environment and must be managed effectively in order to reduce pollution. Aside from brine other difficulties include marine species entrainment and trapping, as well as high chemical use. This paper provides an extensive overview and evaluation of desalination technologies used in Algeria including thermal methods such as Multi-Stage Flash (MSF) and Multiple Effect Distillation (MED) as well as Membrane Reverse Osmosis (RO). Furthermore in order to assess the potential environmental implications of desalination and brine treatment on the Algerian coast, mitigation strategies are proposed to curb the environmental negative impact. To protect water resources for present and future generations, improved brine management techniques are needed to minimize adverse environmental effects and lower the financial burden of disposal. This will encourage further advancements in desalination plants. Ultimately, the paper emphasizes upcoming research opportunities in brine treatment technologies with a focus on improving the efficiency and sustainability of desalination.</p> 2024-03-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Seismic vulnerability assessment of buried water supply and sanitation pipelines using the analytic hierarchy process: a methodology and application 2024-03-20T15:12:30+00:00 Fatma Zohra Halfaya [email protected] Mahmoud Bensaibi [email protected] <p>The evaluation of seismic vulnerability in buried pipelines within water supply and sanitation networks stands as a critical endeavor in safeguarding infrastructure against the impacts of earthquakes. In response, this study introduces a systematic methodology rooted in the Vulnerability Index (VI), leveraging the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to allocate weights to factors influencing pipeline seismic behavior. Through the derivation of an expression for calculating the VI based on these weighted factors, our objective is to furnish a comprehensive pipeline classification system, thereby providing a strategic overview of the networks' seismic resilience. This method's practical utility will be exemplified through the examination of concrete cases involving drinking water pipelines (DWP). Furthermore, the scope will extend to encompass sanitation pipelines, thereby validating the methodology's effectiveness across both domains. By systematically assessing the seismic vulnerability of these crucial infrastructures, we aim to fortify their resilience against seismic events, ensuring the continued provision of essential services even in the face of natural disasters. This study's significance lies not only in its contribution to the field of infrastructure resilience but also in its practical implications for urban planning and disaster management. By elucidating the factors influencing pipeline vulnerability and providing a robust framework for assessment, decision-makers can better prioritize resource allocation and mitigation efforts, ultimately enhancing community safety and well-being. Furthermore, the methodology's adaptability and scalability render it applicable to diverse contexts, facilitating its integration into broader risk management strategies. As such, this study serves as a valuable tool for policymakers, engineers, and stakeholders seeking to enhance the resilience of water supply and sanitation networks in earthquake-prone regions. Through informed decision-making and proactive measures, we can build more resilient communities capable of withstanding the challenges posed by seismic hazards.</p> 2024-03-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Magnetic rotor breakage study in permanent magnet synchronous motor at COMSOL multiphysics and fault detection using machine learning 2024-03-20T15:12:18+00:00 Said Benkaihoul [email protected] Lakhdar Mazouz [email protected] Toufik Tayeb Naas [email protected] Özüpak Yıldırım [email protected] Amar Regaz [email protected] <p>Electric vehicles are one of the most important means in the industrial sector due to their frequent use and depend primarily on electric motors. Electric motors of all types, synchronous and asynchronous, face many faults in the rotor and stator, affecting the performance's reliability. Researchers are seeking to find ways that enable us to detect and diagnose faults in electric motors based on smart and fast methods. Early detection of problems in electric motors is vital, especially in areas such as electric vehicles. This study focuses on magnetic rotor breakage (MRB) in permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM). We use a simulation tool such as COMSOL Multiphysics as a simulation tool. This platform is a widely used software for modeling and analyzing complex electromagnetic systems. The study also addresses fault detection using machine learning. This involves using data analysis and pattern recognition techniques to distinguish between normal and defective states of the motor. This is an important step to improve the reliability of motors and identify potential failures in advance. Five different machine learning algorithms such as Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost), AdaBoost, Gradient Boosting (GB), Naive Bayes (NB), and Random Forest (RF) are used in the study. Data from four different cases obtained from the PMSM design were used to train and test the machine-learning models. The results obtained show how accurate the proposed models are in diagnosing PMSM problems, especially MRB.</p> 2024-03-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 An experimental investigation to predict the durability of polyester-glass fiber composite subjected to tensile loading 2024-03-21T16:24:52+00:00 Djamila Mokhtar [email protected] Malika Medjahdi [email protected] Belaid Mechab [email protected] Noureddine Benderdouche [email protected] Benaouda Bestani [email protected] Mohammed Amin Chemrak [email protected] <p>Glass Fiber and resin composites represent a significant advance in the industry thanks to their lightness, strength, and versatility. Their mechanical strength, highlighting a number of critical aspects in the development of high-performance materials, opens up new prospects in sectors as diverse as aerospace, automotive, and construction, among others. These advances stimulate ongoing research and development in the field of composite materials, underlining the importance of these efforts in meeting future needs in terms of materials performance and durability. This study examines the capacity to predict the durability of polyester-glass fiber composites when subjected to tensile loading. The experimental approach involves exploring the mechanical properties of the composite material and changes in glass fiber content, fiber length, and plate thickness. The process includes performing tensile tests on composite specimens to assess characteristics like Young's modulus and fracture stress. The study uses analytical prediction tools, precisely the Monte Carlo approach, to evaluate the damage distribution within the composite material. The study emphasizes the substantial influence of glass fiber content with a maximum content of 60% mass resin and length with the optimum size of 60 mm on the mechanical properties where Young's modulus attains a value of 4 GPa and longevity of the composite. The study highlights the significance of plate thickness in improving structural performance and fracture toughness, where Young's modulus shows consistency across varying thicknesses. In contrast, stress shows an increasing trend with thickness, culminating in a value of 3.4 MPa. The results enhance comprehension of polyester-glass fiber composites' mechanical characteristics and prediction ability under tensile stress.</p> 2024-03-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 A Pushover analysis approach considering structural and loading uncertainties for seismic performance assessment 2024-03-21T16:24:51+00:00 Mohamed Badaoui [email protected] Abdallah Yacine Rahmani [email protected] Nouredine Bourahla [email protected] Sarra Hachi [email protected] Mohamed Benyagoub [email protected] <p>This paper proposes an approach for evaluating the seismic performance of buildings. By considering the uncertainties in material and geometrical properties of the structural elements as well as those related to the seismic loading, this method aims to delimit the performance zone of the structure rather than focusing on a single performance point commonly used in pushover analysis. This zone makes it possible to identify the probable levels of performance of the building linked to uncertainties and to indicate the most severe level of damage. Reasoning by performance points leads to an answer that gives a single state of damage. The performance zone is defined by capacity curves and response spectrum representing the mean values plus and minus standard deviation obtained by Monte Carlo simulations. These simulations consider the stiffnesses of the structural elements, the natural periods, and the damping ratio of the response spectrum as random variables. The application of the procedure to a case of a building made it possible to identify the upper limit of damage corresponding to the most unfavourable scenario of uncertainties, as well as the situation of the response value of the studied structure in the performance zone, indicating a less critical level of damage (minor damage) to the building. The calculation of the performance point revealed a level of damage oscillating between Immediate Occupancy (IO) and Life Safety (LS). Considering the uncertainties in the material and geometric properties of the structural elements as well as those linked to the response spectrum, the probable extreme damage state is between the LS and CP levels (severe damage).</p> 2024-03-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling in a new design of closed greenhouse 2024-03-21T16:24:53+00:00 Ismail Ghibeche [email protected] Ahmed Nourani [email protected] Toufik Tayeb Naas [email protected] Salah Eddine Benziouche [email protected] Martin Buchholz [email protected] Reiner Buchholz [email protected] <p>Closed greenhouses are crucial buildings for agriculture in controlled environments because they offer the best growing conditions for crops and shield them from outside influences. Researchers can now better optimize design parameters for increased crop output and energy efficiency by simulating airflow and temperature distribution inside closed greenhouses with the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. We examine the temperature distribution and airflow patterns inside the greenhouse under various environmental conditions using CFD simulations. Our findings show that, in comparison to traditional greenhouse constructions, the novel design greatly improves temperature uniformity and lowers energy use. Moreover, the greenhouse's thermal insulation design minimizes heat loss during the colder months, enhancing energy efficiency overall. We offer important insights into how design changes affect airflow dynamics and thermal performance in enclosed greenhouses by utilizing CFD modeling. Our research highlights how effective CFD modeling can be in maximizing crop yields and achieving sustainable agricultural practices through greenhouse design optimization. The integration of novel design components for improved energy efficiency and crop yield is a feasible outcome of this research, which advances the field of closed greenhouse technology overall. The research highlights the value of using CFD modeling to inform the design of next-generation closed greenhouse systems and has important ramifications for sustainable agriculture methods and greenhouse management techniques. The goals were to assess how well various heating/cooling systems maintained the ideal environmental conditions for plant growth. A verified CFD model was used to run the simulations, which took into account a number of variables including the shape of the greenhouse, the outside environment, and the interior heat sources. Important discoveries include understanding temperature gradients, airflow patterns, and possible areas for environmental management enhancement are presented in this paper. Results showed that the species mass transfer of vapor (H2o) will vary over time.</p> 2024-03-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Optimizing self-compacting mortars with fillers from sustainable industrial by-products: evaluation of durability parameters 2024-03-25T18:05:40+00:00 Ahmed Messaoud Djebara [email protected] Mohamed Mouli [email protected] Ramdane Chihaoui [email protected] Yassine Senhadji [email protected] Abdelkadir Medjahed [email protected] Ahmed Soufiane Benosman [email protected] Mehdi Seghiri [email protected] Karim Belmokretar [email protected] <p>This study investigates the transformative potential of repurposing non-biodegradable industrial by-products, specifically glass, brick, and sanitary ceramic waste, as alternative fillers for self-compacting mortars (SCM). Positioned within the framework of sustainability and enhanced performance, we conduct an in-depth comparative analysis against traditional limestone fillers to ascertain the efficacy of these unconventional materials. Employing a comprehensive methodology, we conduct spreading tests, evaluate heat of hydration, and assess mechanical resistance. Additionally, we delve into key durability parameters, including water-accessible porosity and capillarity, to comprehensively understand the nuanced effects of diverse fillers on the characteristics of the resulting self-compacting mortars. The experimental timeline unfolds through a series of assessments, measuring compressive and tensile strengths at strategic intervals - 2, 7, 28, 90, 270, and 365 days post-application. After 270 days of maturation, our study rigorously examines durability parameters. The findings unequivocally reveal a significant enhancement in SCM performance when incorporating glass, brick, and sanitary ceramic waste as fillers, outperforming conventional limestone fillers. Of notable significance is the consistent superiority of ceramic fillers across a spectrum of metrics. This research significantly contributes to the understanding of sustainable repurposing of industrial by-products in construction. Moreover, it highlights the pivotal role played by ceramic fillers in elevating rheological, mechanical, and durability attributes of self-compacting mortars. Beyond its immediate implications, this study opens new avenues for environmentally responsible and economically viable construction materials, promising further advancements and innovation in the field.</p> 2024-03-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Optimization of date palm waste fiber content and length in sand concrete using the factorial design approach 2024-03-25T18:05:41+00:00 Ikram Souici [email protected] Leila Zeghichi [email protected] Abdelhalim Benouis [email protected] <p>The valorization of some agri-food industry by-products, particularly plant waste, in a number of countries may be significantly interesting in the field of civil engineering because they can be used to prepare low-cost biomaterials that consume low amounts of energy and are environmentally friendly. Recently, it has been revealed that the valorization of date palm fibers (DPFs) waste and incorporating them into concrete may be one of the promising solutions that can be adopted in order to reduce or eliminate the huge amounts of this type of waste from our environment and to improve the properties of concrete. The present work aims primarily to investigate the effect of incorporating date palm waste fibers into sand concrete on the properties of this concrete in the fresh and hardened states. For this, two DPF contents were considered. First, 0.1% of DPFs with lengths 2cm and 6cm, and second 0.2%of DPFs with lengths 2cm and 6cm. Furthermore, a factorial design was used for the purpose of analyzing the influence of varying these two parameters, i.e. fiber content and fiber length, on the physico-mechanical properties of the sand concrete produced. In addition, it should be noted that the response to be considered in this design is the compressive and flexural strengths. Moreover, the JMP statistical software was utilized for analyzing the interactions observed and examining the responses that is predicted by the model generated using the factorial design. The findings showed that the expected responses obtained from the adopted model are in good agreement with the experimental data. Further, it was found that the fiber length factor has a positive effect on the response (strength). However, increasing the DPF content in the formulation of sand concrete has a negative effect on his compressive strength.</p> 2024-03-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Double-diffusive convection of non-newtonian power-law fluids in an inclined porous layer 2024-03-27T16:51:30+00:00 Saleh Khir [email protected] Redha Rebhi [email protected] Mohamed Kezrane [email protected] Faouzi Didi [email protected] Selma Lounis [email protected] <p>This paper presents a numerical study of Double-Diffusive convection within an inclined porous medium saturated by a non-Newtonian fluid. The power-law model is utilized for modelling the behavior of the flow in the porous layer. The given statement implies that the long side of the cavity experience thermal and solutal flux rates, whereas the other walls are impermeable and thermally isolated. The issue is characterized by a set of tightly linked non-linear differential equations, termed governing equations, encompassing the mass conservation equation (known as the continuity equation), the momentum equation, the energy equation, and the species equation. The relevant factors that govern the problem being investigated are the Rayleigh number, R_T, the power-law index, n, the angle of inclination, Φ, the cavity aspect ratio, A, the Lewis number, Le, the normalized porosity, ξ, and the buoyancy ratio, N, two types of cavity configuration have been studied: inclined cavity (i.e. Φ≠0°), then we have studied the case of a vertical cavity (i.e. Φ=90°) where the buoyancy forces induced by the thermal and solutal effects are opposing each other and of equal intensity (N=-1). A semi-analytical solution, valid for an infinite layer (A&gt;&gt;1), is derived on the basis of the parallel flow approximation, A numerical approach utilizing the finite differences method was utilized to resolve the governing equations within the porous medium. It is demonstrated that both the inclination of the layer, Φ, and the power-law index, n, have a strong influence on the strength of the intensity of flow, Ψ_0, the heat transfer rate, Nu, and the mass transfer rate, Sh, within the enclosure. A good agreement is found between the predictions of the parallel flow approximation and the numerical results obtained by solving the full governing equations.</p> 2024-03-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Fuzzy backstepping control for enhanced stability of a quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle 2024-03-28T12:50:44+00:00 Abdelhafid Benyounes [email protected] Abdelghafour Herizi [email protected] Mustapha Zegait [email protected] Monir Bouras [email protected] Bachir Nail [email protected] Imad Eddine Tibermacine [email protected] <p class="Dadosautores">This paper presents a robust fuzzy backstepping control approach to enhance the stability and maneuverability of a Quadrotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The proposed design combines the robustness of backstepping control with the adaptability of fuzzy logic to address uncertainties and disturbances commonly encountered in UAV dynamics. By incorporating fuzzy logic, the controller can adapt to changing environmental conditions, ensuring reliable performance in various flight scenarios. The backstepping technique enables systematic handling of nonlinear dynamics and achieves precise tracking of desired trajectories. Extensive simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy in stabilizing the UAV and enabling agile maneuvers, even in the presence of disturbances and model uncertainties. These results highlight the potential of the proposed approach to enhance the robustness and agility of Quadrotor UAVs in real-world applications.</p> 2024-03-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 The impact of supplementary cementitious materials on the rheological and mechanical properties of mortars based on quarry waste sand 2024-03-28T12:50:45+00:00 Guerbas Nabil [email protected] Adem Ait Mohamed Amer [email protected] Adjoudj M’hamed [email protected] Ezziane Karim [email protected] <p>Mineral substances used as additives in cement plants or as additives in the making of concrete contribute through their physical, hydraulic, and pozzolanic activity to improving the behavior of cements in both the fresh and hardened states. Several types of additions are well known, such as natural pozzolans, fly ash, blast furnace slag, and silica fume. These products become more active in the alkaline solutions of cement and give rise to new hydrates that impart greater mechanical strength and better durability to concretes. Through their surface activity and granular distribution, they play a fundamental role in the rheological and mechanical behavior of mortars and concretes. Quarry waste sand (QWS) is generally stockpiled to be eventually sold at very low prices. For this reason, its use in the production of concrete and mortar is increasingly becoming a necessity to protect the environment and meet the needs of the construction and public works sector.This study aims to investigate the effect of using both supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) and quarry waste sand(QWS) to improve some properties of mortar. Ordinary cement is replaced by 10%, 20% and 30% of silica fume (SF), natural pozzolan (NP) or ground blast-furnace slag (GBFS) by weight and the properties of the QWS sand -based mortar are compared to those of natural sand (NS) based mortar. In this study, the slump, superplasticizer requirement, rheological parameters, mechanical strength, and water absorption are investigated. The results obtained show that QWS sand mix has the best workability and requires less superplasticizer dosage. When SCM were used, a drop-in workability is shown and more superplasticizer is required. Also, QWS sand makes the mortar strength 2 and 1.5 times higher than that of NS and becomes 42% higher with 10% SF. Adequate relationships have been established to predict mechanical strengths as a function of test parameters with high correlation coefficient and low root mean square error.</p> 2024-03-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Enhanced free reaching phase SMC for UMS 2024-04-01T19:46:19+00:00 Ali Nasser-Eddine Bendenidina [email protected] Kamel Guesmi [email protected] Aissa Rebai [email protected] <p>In this paper, a new design method for sliding mode control (SMC) is presented for nonlinear underactuated mechanical systems. The aim is to eliminate the reaching phase in SMC and avoid the chattering phenomenon while achieving fast and robust tracking for a class of underactuated mechanical systems (UMS). An alternative method is presented to express the sliding domain equations by incorporating tracking errors. The fundamental concept behind the suggested control scheme is to adjust the tracking errors, enabling the system response to commence on the sliding surface regardless of the initial conditions. This modification guarantees the elimination of the reaching phase, avoiding the chattering phenomenon, and ensuring that the tracking error converges to zero. The stability analysis of the proposed approach is conducted using the Lyapunov method. Through numerical simulations, the validity of the approach is confirmed by implementing the control scheme on a crane system. Subsequently, the performance of the proposed approach is compared with other control methods, emphasizing its effectiveness in handling uncertainties. This comparative analysis aims to emphasize the advantages and efficiency of the proposed control strategy over alternative methods, in particular, to address uncertainties and achieve the desired control objectives.</p> 2024-03-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Assessing fragility functions of unreinforced masonry buildings 2024-04-01T19:46:20+00:00 Fouzia Djaalali [email protected] Mahmoud Bensaibi [email protected] <p class="CorpsA" style="text-align: justify;"><span class="Aucun"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 12.0pt; font-family: 'Arial',sans-serif;">The seismic vulnerability entrenched within the historical urban landscapes of Algeria serves as a poignant reminder of the pressing need for comprehensive risk management strategies, particularly concerning low and medium height unreinforced masonry (URM) structures. These architectural gems, rich in cultural significance, stand as tangible embodiments of Algeria's storied past. However, their susceptibility to seismic disturbances presents an immediate threat, demanding meticulous attention and innovative methodologies for effective risk assessment and mitigation. In a pioneering scholarly pursuit, this research embarks on an ambitious exploration, melding fragility functions and a sophisticated vulnerability index method to unravel the intricate tapestry of seismic risk assessment. Through the lens of fragility functions, the study delves into a nuanced analysis, probabilistically delineating the vulnerabilities entrenched within the complex framework of URM buildings. Furthermore, the meticulous derivation of vulnerability functions via the vulnerability index method enhances the granularity of risk assessment, providing a multifaceted perspective to discern vulnerabilities accurately. Central to this investigation is the Belouizdad district, a microcosm of historical significance nestled within the vibrant metropolis of Algiers. By scrutinizing seismic scenarios spanning a spectrum of intensities (ranging from VII to X), the study orchestrates a symphony of empirical data and analytical prowess, unraveling the potential seismic reverberations poised to impact the district's architectural heritage. In essence, this scholarly endeavor transcends the confines of mere academic pursuit, serving as a guiding light illuminating the path towards tailored seismic reduction policies. It stands as a clarion call to safeguard Algeria's architectural patrimony, fostering resilience amidst the tremors of uncertainty and ensuring the preservation of its cultural legacy for generations to come.</span></span></p> 2024-03-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Activator effect on sawdust-based adsorbent efficiency: application to organic pollutants decontamination 2024-04-01T19:46:21+00:00 Zohra Mekibes [email protected] Ahmed Boucherdoud [email protected] Benaouda Bestani [email protected] Noureddine Benderdouche [email protected] <p>The aim of this study is to valorize available Sawdust as a ligno-cellulosic and locally abundant solid waste generated by different activities, via combined chemical and physical activations route and its application for the removal of hydroxybenzene as a toxic pollutant from aqueous solution in discontinuous mode. Enhancement of adsorption capacities by impregnating separately the powdered sawdust in acidic (phosphoric acid: 20%), basic (potassium hydroxide: 20%) and salty (Ammonium Persulfate: 0.1M) solutions then pyrolysis at 600°C for 1hour in tubular furnace resulting in SWDA, SWDB and SWDS- based adsorbents. The adsorptive rates of the obtained adsorbents were compared to the commercial activated carbon from Merck taken as a reference. The batch adsorption experiments resulted in a maximum adsorption capacities obtained from Langmuir model of up to 192.31, 123.56 and 109.89 and 133.33 mg/g for SWDA, SWDB, SWDS and Merck respectively. Conventional parameters influencing the removal capacity of the considered pollutant such as contact time, adsorbent dosage, pH, initial concentration and temperature were also studied. Samples characterization was carried out using <em>Fourier</em>-<em>transform infrared spectroscopy</em>&nbsp;(<em>FTIR</em>) analyses for functional groups determination, Iodine number test for porosity and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) for microstructure examination of the samples. &nbsp;Adsorption kinetics was found to comply with the pseudo second order with a good correlation factor (<em>R<sup>2</sup></em> &gt; 0.99) with intra-particle diffusion as the rate determining steps. Thermodynamics of Hydroxybenzene adsorption process was spontaneous (<em>Δ</em><em>G<sup> o</sup></em> &lt;0) and endothermic (<em>Δ</em><em>H<sup>o</sup></em> &gt;0). This study showed that sawdust as a waste could prove to be a very efficient adsorbent in removing toxic substances from wastewater.</p> 2024-03-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Simulation of damage under cyclic loading for API 5L X70 steel pipelines (fatigue test) 2024-04-01T19:46:21+00:00 Messaoud Bendaoui [email protected] Allaoua Kherraf [email protected] Soumia Benbouta [email protected] <p>The most efficient way to move large volumes of gas and oil is through pipelines, either from points of production to storage locations or from storage locations to distributed points of end use. One of the main materials of gas transportation pipes is X70 material.&nbsp; Base on the importance of in-service API 5L X70 pipelines, it is important for the safe operation of this system to know the lifespan of pipelines, and predict fatigue crack growth (FCG) of API 5L X70 steel pipeline. The objective of this theme is to study the lifespan of pipelines used for the transport of natural gas, oil and water, manufactured by the company ALFAPIPE in the wilaya of Ghardaïa. The judicious choice for manufacturing metal is a crucial factor to ensure prolonged life duration and improve resistance to fatigue, as materials respond to loading with elastic or plastic deformation. Stresses applied to materials can result in permanent deformation, rupture, cracking or progressive degradation. Understanding the effects of applied stresses is essential for the selection and implementation of materials in industrial applications.&nbsp; Fatigue tests were carried out on API 5L X70 steel using simulations using ANSYS software. The life of different samples was determined for different thicknesses after applying repeated stresses. The obtained results demonstrate the material API 5L X70's sensitivity to fatigue and emphasize the significance of designing pipelines with sufficient safety margins to prevent premature failures caused by fatigue.</p> 2024-03-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Experimental investigation and evaluation of the compactness and moisture damage of asphalt mixes incorporating dune and river sand 2024-04-01T19:46:22+00:00 Abderahman Younsi [email protected] Abdelhalim Bensaada [email protected] Naas Allout [email protected] Haddadi Smail [email protected] Belgacem Choungache [email protected] <p>Road construction is mainly based on the use of raw materials that must be in compliance with the standards, thus ensuring the quality and durability of the road. The use of dune sand and river sand in road geotechnics is an interesting subject. Both types of sand can be used in road construction and maintenance for a variety of applications. Dune sand is often appreciated for its uniform grain size and drainage capacity, while river sand can offer good mechanical strength. The majority of common bituminous mixes contain fillers made of quarry sand, whose amounts are difficult to regulate because of the variety of rock deposits and the conditions under which they are manufactured. In this paper, the compactness and moisture damage of asphalt mixes with two sand types, River sand (RS) with (0/4) size was sourced from the valley in the province of Medea (Algeria) and Dune Sand (DS) with a particle size of (0/0.5) was obtained from a dune in the Algerian province of Djelfa, were examined. Furthermore, a 100% replacement rate by weight of Crushed Sand (CS) with (0/3) mm size was used (quarry sand). The investigation employed a comprehensive approach, utilizing Marshall and gyratory shear compaction tests to assess compactness, while moisture damage was evaluated through rigorous water resistance testing and compressive strength methodology. The results of the study reveal a notable disparity in the mechanical performance of asphalt mixtures containing dune and river sand, showcasing diminished compactness and heightened susceptibility to moisture-induced damage when compared to alternative mix formulations. These findings underscore the critical role of sand type selection in asphalt mix design, emphasizing the need for careful consideration to optimize performance and durability.</p> 2024-03-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Cooling Efficiency of a NACA4412 airfoil: Numerical application 2024-04-03T16:26:38+00:00 Toufik Tayeb Naas [email protected] Mostefa Telha [email protected] Ismail Ghibeche [email protected] Omar Mokhtar Khelifa [email protected] Salem Ben Abdelhafid [email protected] <p>The temperatures imposed on the blades of the first stages of turbines are generally very high; these expose the latter to harmful thermal effects, pushing manufacturers to continually improve techniques for cooling the blades. It is true that by increasing the temperature of the gases at the inlet of the turbines, we increase the efficiency, the performance of the machines, and we improve the power and fuel consumption with a significant reduction in polluting gases. Thus, the current general trend among manufacturers is to design machines that operate at increasingly high inlet temperatures. This has led, therefore, to the constant search for new materials with high thermal resistance and to constantly improve cooling techniques. This task is conditioned by a good and deep understanding of the phenomenon of heat transfer in turbine blades. This study examines the three dimension numerical simulation of the flow and heat exchange inside an internal cooling channel of a gas turbine blade with the profile of NACA 4412. This channel plays an important role in increasing heat exchange between the cooling air and the walls of the blade. In the turbulent regime, we have investigated the cooling of a profile blade NACA 4412 using forced convection (V = 200, 250, 300, 350, and 400 m / s). determined that the value of the cold air's speed increases with the intensity of the secondary flow inside the morning. Results found that, The flow dynamics and kinematics of fluid particles alter significantly when the cooling air speed is increased, and the cooling level is enhanced.</p> 2024-04-03T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Assessing road vulnerability in seismic conditions: a comprehensive study 2024-04-03T16:26:40+00:00 Sonia Adafer [email protected] Mohamed Badaoui [email protected] Mahmoud Bensaibi [email protected] Saïd Mokhbi [email protected] <p>Road infrastructure is indispensable for societal functionality, yet it is highly susceptible to the devastating impacts of seismic events. This paper focuses on enhancing the resilience of road systems by systematically identifying, quantifying, and assessing factors contributing to their vulnerability during earthquakes. The core objective of this study is to develop and validate a seismic vulnerability index for road sections, which aims to evaluate and classify the susceptibility of road infrastructure to earthquake-induced damage comprehensively. This systematic approach is pivotal for guiding effective mitigation strategies and prioritization efforts. To fulfill this objective, the study employs the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to introduce a novel methodology for calculating the seismic vulnerability index, incorporating various factors that influence road vulnerability. This method allows for the accurate classification of road sections into distinct levels of susceptibility, providing a solid foundation for implementing targeted interventions and enhancing road resilience. Further, the paper validates the theoretical model through several case studies, demonstrating the practical applicability and effectiveness of the seismic vulnerability index in real-world scenarios. Additionally, the use of Geographic Information System (GIS) technology to simulate earthquake scenarios within an urban road network offers valuable insights into the potential seismic behavior of roads. These simulations are crucial for identifying critical areas that require intervention and for planning resilience-building efforts more effectively. By proposing a comprehensive framework that combines rigorous analysis, empirical validation, and advanced simulation techniques, this paper seeks to make a significant contribution to the field of infrastructure resilience. It aims to advance the understanding of road vulnerability in seismic conditions and supports the development of strategic approaches for enhancing the resilience of road infrastructure against earthquakes. Through the development and validation of a seismic vulnerability index, this study meets its primary objective, providing a valuable resource for researchers, policymakers, and practitioners in disaster management and infrastructure planning.</p> 2024-04-03T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Improvement of mechanical and interfacial properties (ITZ) of concrete based on treated recycled aggregates 2024-04-03T16:26:27+00:00 Meftah Allal [email protected] Leila Zeghichi [email protected] Karima Larkat [email protected] <p>The increasing utilization of solid waste from construction and demolition as a raw material for aggregate production for concrete is generating growing interest in the construction and public works industry. This practice contributes to preserving natural resources and reducing waste, which is essential for environmental protection. The use of recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) from demolition waste to produce new concrete, known as recycled aggregates concrete (RAC), is an eco-friendly approach. However, RCAs have poor physical and mechanical properties due to their low density and high absorption, compounded by a low interfacial transition zone (ITZ) compared to natural aggregates (NA). To address these issues, this study proposes encapsulating RCA in a cement slurry (with a water-to-cement ratio of 0.5) and examining the impact of adding 5% silica fume (SF) and 2% water-repellent agent (HF) to the cement grout on the properties of (RCA) made from treated recycled concrete aggregates (RCAT). Two types of treated aggregates, (RCAT-5%FS) and (RCAT-2%HF), were developed and hardened for 15 days in air. They were then used to manufacture RACT concrete. The experimental results demonstrate that the inclusion of (SF) and (HF) effectively enhances the properties of (RCAT). Moreover, the compressive and tensile strengths of RACT-SF are greater than those of the control concrete NAC, estimated at 43.5 MPa and 3.87 MPa, respectively. SEM-EDS analysis confirmed the uniformity of contacts within (ITZ) and assessed the compatibility of the Ca/Si ratio. The addition of silica fume contributed to the creation of solid, durable, and environmentally friendly concrete.</p> 2024-04-03T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Double star permanent magnet synchronous machine: modified direct torque control 2024-04-05T15:11:34+00:00 Naas Bachir [email protected] Benalia M’hamdi [email protected] Amari Abderrahmane [email protected] Naas Badreddine [email protected] <p>In the area of high power drives, double star synchronous machines are an interesting choice compared to conventional synchronous machines, due to the relatively low torque ripple created. In this paper, direct torque control (DTC) of double star permanent magnet synchronous machine (DS-PMSM) using artificial neural networks (ANN) is proposed. MATLAB/Simulink results show the comparison between direct torque control (DTC) and direct torque control using artificial neural networks (ANN). The analysis of the results shows good performance for speed, small torque and flow ripple when using the artificial neural network (ANN) strategy.</p> 2024-04-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Trajectory control for a Hexacopter UAV using Nonsingular Terminal Sliding Mode Control 2024-04-05T15:11:26+00:00 Said Khoudiri [email protected] Abdelkader Khoudiri [email protected] Belgacem Toual [email protected] Mohamed Khaleel [email protected] <p>Research and development in the field of UAVs have witnessed a significant surge lately. This study aims to design a control strategy for tracking the trajectory of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) Hexacopter based on sliding mode control theory. First, the non-linear translational and rotational mathematical model of the Hexacopter is initially derived using the Newton-Euler formulation. Subsequently, a nonsingular fast terminal sliding mode controller (NSTSMC) is developed to enable the system to accurately follow the given flight trajectory, while accounting for variations in the three orientation angles.&nbsp;&nbsp; For that, six sliding manifolds are designed to have a fast dynamic response, and their stability analysis is verified using the Lyapunov direct method. To enhance the robustness of the flight controller and the control quality, external disturbances are taken into account in the modeling and control development, and chattering reduction is also taken into account. The proposed control's validity and performance are evaluated in MATLAB/Simulink compared to the classical PID controller. The comparative simulation results indicated that the aircraft under the NSTSMC could effectively flow along the predetermined trajectory, and counteract disturbances that had a negligible impact on the path without requiring undue exertion.</p> 2024-04-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Real-time of a two-level three-phase inverter controlled by PWM and full wave techniques 2024-04-05T15:14:53+00:00 Noureddine Nekbil [email protected] Yacine Guettaf [email protected] Mohamed Boudiaf [email protected] Mohamed Nour [email protected] <p>Sustainability in power generation is readily available and must be able to adapt to a variety of energy needs or integrate seamlessly into alternative distribution networks. This research aims to bridge the gap between continuous energy production and efficient energy utilization by advancing the understanding and application of three-phase dual-level voltage inverters. This study focuses on two main objectives: firstly, to develop a comprehensive model and secondly, to validate the functionality of a three-phase two-level voltage inverter. The control strategy employed for this inverter involves the full-wave method and pulse-width modulation (PWM). The results obtained from the hardware implementation of these control methods show impressive levels of success, closely matching the expected performance of the three-phase inverter. This success underlines the robustness and effectiveness of both full-wave and PWM control strategies. To further underline their practical applicability, experimental validation of PWM and Full Wave control methods is demonstrated in a controlled research laboratory environment.</p> 2024-04-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 PSO-enhanced discrete-time integrated sliding mode-based control of three-level NPC converter for grid-connected PV-FC distributed generation system 2024-04-05T15:14:54+00:00 Abdelkader Khoudiri [email protected] Said Khoudiri [email protected] Mohamed Khaleel [email protected] <p>This study proposes the control of a three-level NPC converter applied in a PV-FC hybrid generation system based on discrete-time integral sliding mode control (DISMC) combined with the particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique. First, the comprehensive depiction and modeling of the system's main components are initially presented. Then, the controller's detailed design procedure is given.&nbsp; The sliding manifold is designed to have a fast dynamic response, and its stability analysis is verified using the Lyapunov direct method. Next, the optimization procedure is introduced to calculate the optimal values of the DISMC gains. Furthermore, a power management strategy is examined within the proposed control system to maximize the utility of the power produced by the hybrid system; the control is done through the designed PSO-DISMC to allow decoupled control of the active and reactive powers in two distinct modes of operation (the feeder-flow control (FFC) and the unit-power control (UPC) modes). The simulation of the approach is conducted in MATLAB/Simulink, and the findings demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control strategy.</p> 2024-04-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 On the existence of positive solutions of some nonlocal elliptic problems involving fractional p–Laplacian operator 2024-04-08T15:34:07+00:00 Omar Djidel [email protected] Med-Salem Rezaoui [email protected] <p>Our aim in this paper is to analyze the existence of solutions to a nonlocal elliptic problem involving the fractional Laplacian operator. These operators are utilized to solve an equation defined within a bounded domain &nbsp;in . The operator &nbsp;is a fractional Laplacian , where &nbsp;with the condition &nbsp;and &nbsp;is a non-negative function almost everywhere with respect to the variable , and &nbsp;are real numbers. The article establishes two existence theorems for weak solutions using Tychonoff and Schauder fixed-point theorems. These theorems are formulated based on different hypotheses regarding the parameters and .</p> 2024-04-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Numerical investigation of granular column-improved soils using the direct shear test 2024-04-08T19:17:39+00:00 Mohamed Labed [email protected] Naas Allout [email protected] Abdelhak Mabrouki [email protected] <p>The granular columns treatment is widely used in the weak soils. The present paper focuses on the numerical modeling of a direct shear test on granular columns in soils. The finite difference code Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua in 3 Dimensions (FLAC3D) was used in this research work, to evaluate the equivalent properties of granular column-improved soils with different diameters of the columns, and different plan configurations. The results of these numerical tests are discussed in terms of increases the shear load-strength and decreases the horizontal displacement due to the variation of arrangements, Young's modulus and the friction angle of the granular columns. Different types of failures observed in the granular columns. Bending failure mode is the main in the granular column with large values of Young's modulus and the friction angle when subjected a lateral load.</p> 2024-04-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Eddy current nondestructive evaluation of metallic plates electrical conductivity using artificial neural networks based inverse problem 2024-04-09T14:19:39+00:00 Abdelkader Bouhlal [email protected] Nasreddine Nait-Said [email protected] Fatima-Zohra Louai [email protected] Said Touati [email protected] <p>The most used method and extensively studied in the literature for conductors’ characterization is Eddy Current Nondestructive Evaluation (ECNDE) due to its significant advantages, such as its ability to preserve the integrity of the structures or materials to be examined during manufacturing or a regular in-service nondestructive testing. Various approaches are developed for the Eddy Current measurement of the electrical conductivity. In the present work, the evaluation of the electrical conductivity is treated as an inverse problem. In pursuit of this aim, a combination is established between Eddy currents evaluation and artificial neural networks (ANN) to evaluate the electrical conductivity of homogeneous metallic plates from eddy-current probe impedance measurements. For this purpose, an experimental setup is developed, including a bobbin-coil probe, metallic plates (target), data acquisition and signal processing systems. Finally, experimental conductivity values of various metallic plates using ANN are compared with those obtained using four-point measurements of direct current potential drop (DCPD) made on the same plates and very good agreement is obtained.</p> 2024-04-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024