Transient stability investigation of a grid integrating solar and wind energies: a case study of southern Algeria

Authors

  • Chabani Asma
  • Salim Makhloufi

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.54021/seesv5n1-156

Keywords:

electricity network, photovoltaic generator, wind turbine, ETAP

Abstract

The primary goal of electricity producers is to ensure the efficient operation of the electrical grid and the reliable delivery of electricity to individual households. Strengthening the electricity network with the integration of micro-power plants such as wind farms and photovoltaic power plants, as in the case of Algeria, contributes to improving the quality of electricity supplied to consumers. This work presents a simulation study of the electrical network of the Adrar region using ETAP program, to show the influence of the insertion of photovoltaic and wind power plants on the electrical network. The results showed good tolerance of the grid to the integration of wind energy, while the integration of photovoltaic energy needs more requirements and technical challenges to overcome, because, as shown by the results of simulations, the integration of photovoltaic energy makes the network more vulnerable to disturbances. The primary reason for this phenomenon is the lack of mechanical inertia, enabling the system to minimize perturbations. Where wind turbines are unique in their ability to withstand load variations and respond quickly to disruptions. They return to their initial value in 20 seconds, while solar power systems signal return to their initial value after 45 seconds due to their lack of mechanical inertia. Owing to the limitations of the electrical network, the majority of test scenarios demonstrate that wind farm structures can sustain a steady voltage and frequency of 50 Hz. On the other hand, there are momentary fluctuations in voltage and frequency in structures that have photovoltaic systems installed.

References

EZHILJENEKKHA, G. B.; MARSALINEBENO, M. Power quality issue simulation in solar energy. Mater. Today Proc., v. 43, p. 3409–3413, Jan. 2021, doi: 10.1016/J.MATPR.2020.09.070. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/

article/abs/pii/S2214785320367596

RAHMAN, M. N.; WAHID, M. A. Renewable-based zero-carbon fuels for the use of power generation: A case study in Malaysia supported by updated developments worldwide. Energy Reports, v. 7, p. 1986–2020, Nov. 2021, doi: 10.1016/J.EGYR.2021.04.005. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/

S2352484721002195

LIM, L. H. et al., A techno-economic assessment of the reutilisation of municipal solid waste incineration ash for CO2 capture from incineration flue gases by calcium looping. Chem. Eng. J., v. 464, p. 142567, May 2023, doi: 10.1016/J.CEJ.2023.142567. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1385894723012986

ALAM, S. et al. The impacts of globalization, renewable energy, and agriculture on CO2 emissions in India: Contextual evidence using a novel composite carbon emission-related atmospheric quality index. Gondwana Res., v. 119, p. 384–401, 2023, doi: 10.1016/j.gr.2023.04.005. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/

article/abs/pii/S1342937X2300117X

GUL, E. et al. Transition toward net zero emissions – Integration and optimization of renewable energy sources: Solar, hydro, and biomass with the local grid station in central Italy. Renew. Energy, v. 207, p. 672–686, May 2023, doi: 10.1016/J.RENENE.2023.03.051.

SONG, Z.; CAO, S.; YANG, H. Assessment of solar radiation resource and photovoltaic power potential across China based on optimized interpretable machine learning model and GIS-based approaches. Appl. Energy, v. 339, no. February, p. 121005, 2023, doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2023.121005. https://www.

sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0306261923003690

SINSEL, S. R.; RIEMKE, R. L.; HOFFMANN, V. H. Challenges and solution technologies for the integration of variable renewable energy sources—a review. Renew. Energy, v. 145, p. 2271–2285, Jan. 2020, doi: 10.1016/J.RENENE.

06.147. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0960148119

DEGUENON, L. et al. Overcoming the challenges of integrating variable renewable energy to the grid: A comprehensive review of electrochemical battery storage systems. J. Power Sources, v. 580, p. 233343, Oct. 2023, doi: 10.1016/J.JPOWSOUR.2023.233343. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/arti

cle/abs/pii/S037877532300719X

LLEDÓ, L. et al. Seasonal prediction of renewable energy generation in Europe based on four teleconnection indices. Renew. Energy, v. 186, p. 420–430, Mar. 2022, doi: 10.1016/J.RENENE.2021.12.130. https://www.sciencedirect.com/scien

ce/article/abs/pii/S0960148121018607

Zhang, X. et al. Coordinated control strategy for a PV-storage grid- connected system based on a virtual synchronous generator. Glob. Energy Interconnect., v. 3, no. 1, p. 51–59, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.gloei.2020.03.003. https://www.science

direct.com/science/article/pii/S2096511720300256

UPADHYAY, T.; JAMNANI, J. G. Simulation and analysis of solar photovoltaic penetration in conventional power system. Mater. Today Proc., v. 62, no. P13, p. 7281–7287, Jan. 2022, doi: 10.1016/J.MATPR.2022.04.340. https://www.science

direct.com/science/article/abs/pii/S2214785322024841

WANG, S. et al. Robustness assessment of power network with renewable energy. Electr. Power Syst. Res., v. 217, p. 109138, Apr. 2023, doi: 10.1016/J.EPSR.2023.109138. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0378779623000275

MOKEKE, S.; THAMAE, L. Z. The impact of intermittent renewable energy generators on Lesotho national electricity grid. Electr. Power Syst. Res., v. 196, no. April, p. 107196, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.epsr.2021.107196. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0378779621001772

BOURAIOU, A. et al. Status of renewable energy potential and utilization in Algeria. J. Clean. Prod., v. 246, p. 119011, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.11

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0959652619338818

DÍAZ-CUEVAS, P.; HADDAD, B.; FERNANDEZ-NUNEZ, M. Energy for the future: Planning and mapping renewable energy. The case of Algeria. Sustain. Energy Technol. Assessments, v. 47, p. 101445, Oct. 2021, doi: 10.1016/J.SETA.2021.101445. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/

S2213138821004550

YAZDANINEJADI, A. et al. Impact of inverter-based DERs integration on protection, control, operation, and planning of electrical distribution grids. Electr. J., v. 32, no. 6, p. 43–56, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.tej.2019.05.016. https://www.

sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1040619019300430

AMEUR, A. et al. Aggour, Analysis of renewable energy integration into the transmission network. Electr. J., v. 32, no. 10, p. 106676, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.tej.2019.106676. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/

S1040619019302817

CABRERA-TOBAR, A. et al. Review of advanced grid requirements for the integration of large scale photovoltaic power plants in the transmission system. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., v. 62, p. 971–987, Sep. 2016, doi: 10.1016/J.RSER.2016.05.044. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S136403211630154X

ATTOUI, I. et al. Hybrid Solar‐Wind System Modeling and Control. Power Electron. Green Energy Convers., p. 419–452, 2022, doi: 10.1002/9781

ch12. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/978111978651

ch12

AHMED, S. D.; AL-ISMAIL, F. S. M.; SHAFIULLAH, M.; AL-SULAIMAN, F. A.; EL-AMIN, I. M. Grid Integration Challenges of Wind Energy: A Review. IEEE Access, v. 8, no. type 1, p. 10857–10878, 2020, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.

2964896. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8952713

ADETOKUN, B. B.; MURIITHI, C. M. Impact of integrating large-scale DFIG-based wind energy conversion system on the voltage stability of weak national grids: A case study of the Nigerian power grid. Energy Reports, v. 7, p. 654–666, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.egyr.2021.01.025. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/arti

cle/pii/S2352484721000263

CHABANI, A.; MAKHLOUFI, S.; LACHTAR, S. Overview and impact of the renewable energy plants connected to the electrical network in southwest Algeria. EAI Endorsed Trans. Energy Web, v. 8, no. 36, p. 1–15, 2021, doi: 10.4108/eai.29-3-2021.169168. https://publications.eai.eu/index.php/ew/article/view/760

HIMRI, Y. et al.Potential and economic feasibility of wind energy in south West region of Algeria. Sustain. Energy Technol. Assessments, v. 38, no. October 2019, p. 100643, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.seta.2020.100643. https://www.science

direct.com/science/article/abs/pii/S2213138819306800

BENTOUBA, S. et al. Performance assessment of a 20 MW photovoltaic power plant in a hot climate using real data and simulation tools. Energy Reports, v. 7, p. 7297–7314, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.egyr.2021.10.082. https://www.science

direct.com/science/article/pii/S235248472101101X

SAHEB KOUSSA, D.; KOUSSA, M. GHGs (greenhouse gases) emission and economic analysis of a GCRES (grid-connected renewable energy system) in the arid region, Algeria. Energy, v. 102, p. 216–230, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.energy.2016.02.103. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs

/pii/S0360544216301657

GOLROODBARI, S. Z. M. et al., Pooling the cable: A techno-economic feasibility study of integrating offshore floating photovoltaic solar technology within an offshore wind park. Sol. Energy, v. 219, n. March, p. 65–74, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.solener.2020.12.062. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/

S0038092X20313219

KUMAR, R. T.; RAJAN, C. C. A. Integration of hybrid PV-wind system for electric vehicle charging: Towards a sustainable future. e-Prime – Adv. Electr. Eng. Electron. Energy, v. 6, no. September, p. 100347, 2023, doi: 10.1016/j.prime.2023.100347. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/

S2772671123002425

ROUMMANI, K.; HAMOUDA, M.; MAZARI, B. A new concept in direct-driven vertical axis wind energy conversion system under real wind speed with robust stator power control. Renew. Energy, v. 143, p. 478–487, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2019.04.156. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs

/pii/S0960148119306408

BEKRAOUI, F. et al. PS and GW optimization of variable sliding gains mode control to stabilize a wind energy conversion system under the real wind in Adrar, Algeria. Int. J. Nonlinear Sci. Numer. Simul., no. Lddi, 2022, doi: 10.1515/ijnsns-2022-0237. https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/ijnsns-2022-0237/pdf

BOURAIOU, A. et al. Experimental evaluation of the performance and degradation of single crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules in the Saharan environment. Energy, v. 132, p. 22–30, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.energy.2017.05.056. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0360544217308113

IHADDADENE, R.; TABET, S.; GUERIRA, B.; IHADDADENE, N.; BEKHOUCHE, K. Evaluation of the degradation of a PV panel in an arid zone; case study Biskra (Algeria). Sol. Energy, v. 263, no. August, 2023, doi: 10.1016/j.solener.2023.111809. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/ab

s/pii/S0038092X23004346

SOLER-CASTILLO, Y.; RIMADA, J. C.; HERNÁNDEZ, L.; MARTÍNEZ-CRIADO, G. Modelling of the efficiency of the photovoltaic modules: Grid-connected plants to the Cuban national electrical system. Sol. Energy, v. 223, no. May, p. 150–157, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.solener.2021.05.052. https://www.science

direct.com/science/article/pii/S0038092X21004229

KEBBATI, Y.; BAGHLI, L. Design, modeling and control of a hybrid grid-connected photovoltaic-wind system for the region of Adrar, Algeria. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol., v. 20, n. 6, p. 6531–6558, 2023, doi: 10.1007/s13762-022-04426-y. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13762-022-04426-y

SOFOKLIS, T. University of Thessaly School of Engineering Department of Electrical And Computer Engineering. Transient stability analysis of a power system with the integration of wind energy. Tsantzalis Sofoklis Supervisor : Bargiotas Dimitrios TRANSIENT STABILITY ANAL, 2023.

Downloads

Published

2024-06-19

How to Cite

Asma, C., & Makhloufi, S. (2024). Transient stability investigation of a grid integrating solar and wind energies: a case study of southern Algeria. STUDIES IN ENGINEERING AND EXACT SCIENCES, 5(1), 3137–3160. https://doi.org/10.54021/seesv5n1-156