The impact of supplementary cementitious materials on the rheological and mechanical properties of mortars based on quarry waste sand

Authors

  • Guerbas Nabil
  • Adem Ait Mohamed Amer
  • Adjoudj M’hamed
  • Ezziane Karim

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.54021/seesv5n1-042

Keywords:

compressive strength, workability, water absorption, natural sand, quarry waste sand, rheology

Abstract

Mineral substances used as additives in cement plants or as additives in the making of concrete contribute through their physical, hydraulic, and pozzolanic activity to improving the behavior of cements in both the fresh and hardened states. Several types of additions are well known, such as natural pozzolans, fly ash, blast furnace slag, and silica fume. These products become more active in the alkaline solutions of cement and give rise to new hydrates that impart greater mechanical strength and better durability to concretes. Through their surface activity and granular distribution, they play a fundamental role in the rheological and mechanical behavior of mortars and concretes. Quarry waste sand (QWS) is generally stockpiled to be eventually sold at very low prices. For this reason, its use in the production of concrete and mortar is increasingly becoming a necessity to protect the environment and meet the needs of the construction and public works sector.This study aims to investigate the effect of using both supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) and quarry waste sand(QWS) to improve some properties of mortar. Ordinary cement is replaced by 10%, 20% and 30% of silica fume (SF), natural pozzolan (NP) or ground blast-furnace slag (GBFS) by weight and the properties of the QWS sand -based mortar are compared to those of natural sand (NS) based mortar. In this study, the slump, superplasticizer requirement, rheological parameters, mechanical strength, and water absorption are investigated. The results obtained show that QWS sand mix has the best workability and requires less superplasticizer dosage. When SCM were used, a drop-in workability is shown and more superplasticizer is required. Also, QWS sand makes the mortar strength 2 and 1.5 times higher than that of NS and becomes 42% higher with 10% SF. Adequate relationships have been established to predict mechanical strengths as a function of test parameters with high correlation coefficient and low root mean square error.

References

VINAYAK, R. S.; POPAT, D. K. Properties of concrete by replacement natural sand with artificial sand. International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology, v. 1, n. 7, p. 1-7, 2012.

LOHANI, T.K.; PADHI, M.; DASH, K.P.; JENA, S. Optimum utilization of quarry dust as partial replacement of sand in concrete. International Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, v. 1, 391-404, 2012.

SHI, T. Y.; TANIGAWA, Y.; MORI, H.; KUROKAWA, Y. A study of effect of superfine powders on fluidity of cement paste. Trans. Jpn. Concr. Inst., v. 2, n. 2, p. 223-228, 1998.

MEZIANE, E. H.; EZZIANE, K.; KENAI, S. Mechanical hydration, and durability modifications provided to mortar made with crushed sand and blended cements. Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology, v. 29, n. 18, p. 1987-2005, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1080/01694243.2015.1048931

RMILI, A.; BEN OUEZDOU, M.; ADDED, M.; GHORBEL, E. Incorporation of crushed sands and tunisian desert sands in the composition of self-compacting concretes part i: study of formulation. International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, v. 3, n. 1, p. 3-9, 2009.

BOUZIANI, T. () Assessment of fresh properties and compressive strength of self-compacting concrete made with different sand types by mixture design modelling approach. Construction and Building Materials, v. 49, p. 308-314, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.08.039

KWAN, A. K. H.; MCKINLEY, M. Effects of limestone fines on water film thickness, paste film thickness and performance of mortar. Powder Technology, v. 261, p. 33-41, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2014.04.027

BOUNEDJEMA, Y.; EZZIANE, K.; HALLAL, A. Variation of mechanical and rheological properties of mortar by replacement of natural sand with crushed sand. Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology, v. 31. 182-201, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01694243.2016.1206331

WESTERHOLM, M.; LAGERBLAD, B.; FORSSBERG, E. Rheological properties of micromortars containing fines from manufactured aggregates. Materials and Structure, v. 40, p. 615-625, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1617/s11527-006-9173-1

BENABED, B.; KADRI, E. H.; AZZOUZ, L.; KENAI, S. Properties of self-compacting mortar made with various types of sand. Cement and Concrete Composites, v. 34, p. 1167-1173, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconcomp.

07.007

WESTERHOLM, M.; LAGERBLAD, B.; SILFWERBRAND, J.; FORSSBERG, E. Influence of fine aggregate characteristics on the rheological properties of mortars. Cement and Concrete Composites, v. 30, p. 274-282, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2007.08.008

PRIYANKA, A. J.; DILIP, K. K. Effect of replacement of natural sand by manufactured sand on the properties of cement mortar. International journal of civil and structural engineering, v. 3, n. 3, p. 621-628, 2013.

DEBIEB, F.; KENAI, S. The use of coarse and fine crushed bricks as aggregate in concrete. Construction and Building Materials, v. 22, p. 886-893, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2006.12.013

SHANMUGAPRIYA, T.; UMA, R. N. Optimization of partial remplacement of m-sand by natural sand in high performance concrete with silica fume. International Journal of Engineering Sciences and Emerging Technologies, v. 2, n. 2, p. 73-80, 2012.

ADAMS, J. M.; RAJESH, A. M.; BRIGHTSON, P.; ANAND, M. P. Experimental investigation on the effect of m-sand in high performance. Concrete, American Journal of Engineering Research, v. 2, n. 12, p. 46-51, 2013.

RAJPUT, S. P. S. An experimental study on crushed stone dust as fine aggregate in cement concrete. Materials Today: Proceedings, v. 5, n. 9, p. 17540-17547, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2018.06.070

BEDERINA, M.; MAKHLOUFI, Z.; BOUNOUA, A. Effect of partial and total replacement of siliceous river sand with limestone crushed sand on the durability of mortars exposed to chemical solutions. Construction and Building Materials, v. 47, p. 146-158, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.05.037

VIKAN, H.; JUSTNES, H. Rheology of cementitious paste with silica fume or limestone. Cement and Concrete Research, v. 37, n. 11, p. 1512-1517, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2007.08.012

MANE, K. M.; KULKARNI, D. K.; PRAKASH, K. B. Near-surface and chloride permeability of concrete using pozzolanic materials and manufactured sand as partial replacement of fine aggregate. Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions of Civil Engineering, v. 45, p. 1427-1439, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40996-020-00543-1.

MAHESHBABU, V.; DEVI, B. A.; MAHESHBABU, B. Experimental analysis on strength and durability of concrete with partial replacement of natural zeolite and manufactured sand. International Journal of Advance Research and Development, v. 4, n. 9, p. 1-6, 2019.

MANE, K. M.; KULKARNI,·D. K.; PRAKASH, K. B. Performance of various pozzolanic materials on the properties of concrete made by partially replacing natural sand by manufactured sand. Journal of Building Pathology and Rehabilitation, v. 4, n. 22, p. 1-9, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41024-019-0061-9

KHOUADJIA, M. L. K.; MEZGHICHE, B.; DRISSI, M. Experimental evaluation of workability and compressive strength of concrete with several local sand and mineral additions. Construction and Building Materials, v. 98, p. 194-203, 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.08.081

ASTM C230/C230M-08. Standard specifications for flow table for use in tests of hydraulic cement. ASTM Standards. ASTM International. West Conshohocken, v. 04, p. 1-6, 2008.

BS EN 196-1. 2016. Methods of testing cement: Determination of strength, 1-38.

CELIK, T.; MARAR, K. Effects of crushed stone dust on some properties of concrete. Cement and Concrete Research, v. 26, n. 7, p. 1121-1130, 1996. https://doi.org/10.1016/0008-8846(96)00078-6

DONZA, H.; CABRERA, O.; IRASSAR, E. F. High-strength concrete with different fine aggregate. Cement and Concrete Research, v. 32, n. 11, p. 1755-1761, 2002. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0008-8846(02)00860-8.

CEPURITIS, R.; WIGUM, B. J.; GARBOCZI, E. J.; MORTSELL, E.; JACOBSEN, S. Filler from crushed aggregate for concrete: pore structure, specific surface, particle shape and size distribution. Cement and Concrete Composites, v. 54, p. 2-16, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2014.03.010

IQBAL KHAN, M.; ABBASS, W.; ALRUBAIDI, M.; ALQAHTANI, F. K. (2020). Optimization of the fine to coarse aggregate ratio for the workability and mechanical properties of high strength steel fiber reinforced concretes. Materials, v. 13, n. 22, p. 5202. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13225202

SKARE, E. L.; SHEIATI, S.; CEPURITIS, R.; MORTSELL, E.; SMEPLASS, S.; SPANGENBERG, J.; JACOBSEN, S. Rheology modelling of cement paste with manufactured sand and silica fume: Comparing suspension models with artificial neural network predictions. Construction and Building Materials, v. 317, p. 126114, 2022. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2021.126114

ADJOUDJ, M.; EZZIANE, K.; KADRI, E. H.; NGO, T. T.; KACI, A. Evaluation of rheological parameters of mortar containing various amounts of mineral addition with polycarboxylate superplasticizer. Construction and Building Materials, v. 70, p. 549-559, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.07.111

ZHANG, X.; HAN, J. The effect of ultra-fine admixture on the rheological property of cement paste. Cement and Concrete Research, v. 30, n. 5, p. 827-830, 2000. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0008-8846(00)00236-2

SHAFIGH, P.; JUMAAT, M. Z.; MAHMUD, H.; ALENGARAM, U. J. Oil palm shell lightweight concrete containing high volume ground granulated blast furnace slag. Construction and Building Materials, v. 40, p. 231-238, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.10.007

BOUKENDAKDJI, O.; KENAI, S.; KADRI, E. H.; ROUIS, F. Effect of slag on the rheology offresh self-compacted concrete. Construction and Building Materials, v. 23, p. 2593-2598, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.

02.029

SAFIDDINE, S.; DEBIEB, F.; KADRI, E. H.; MENADI, B.; SOUALHI, H. Effect of crushed sand and limestone crushed sand dust on the rheology of cement mortar. Applied Rheology, v. 27, p. 14940, 2017. https://doi.org/10.3933/applrhe

ol-27-14490

AHARI, R. S.; ERDEM, T. K.; RAMYAR, K. Effect of various supplementary cementitious materials on rheological properties of self-consolidating concrete, Construction and Building Materials, v. 75, p. 89-98, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.11.014

TÜRK, E.; KARATAS, M.; DENER, M. Rheological, mechanical and durability properties of self-compacting mortars containing basalt powder and silica fume. Construction and Building Materials, v. 356, p. 129229, 2022. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2022.129229

HE, J.; CHENG, C.; ZHU, X.; LI, X. Effect of silica fume on the rheological properties of cement paste with ultra-low water binder ratio. Materials (Basel), v. 15, p. 554, 2022. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15020554

FERRARIS, C. F.; OBLA, K. H.; HILL, R. Influence of mineral admixtures on the rheology of cement paste and Rheological properties of cementitious materials containing mineral concrete. Cement and Concrete Research, v. 31, n. 2, p. 245-255, 2001. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0008-8846(00)00454-3

MANSOUR, M. S.; GHERNOUTI, Y. Conception of an eco-friendly cement based on natural pozzolan for improve rheological behavior of concrete. Journal of building Materials and structures, v. 7, n. 2, p. 130-139, 2020. https://doi.org/10.34118/jbms.v7i2.712

BOUGLADA, M. S.; NACERI, A.; BAHEDDI, M.; PEREIRA-DE-OLIVEIRA, L. (2019). Characterization and modelling of the rheological behavior of blended cements based on mineral additions. European journal of environmental and civil engineering, v. 25, n. 4, p. 655-672. https://doi.org/10.1080/19648189.

1539675

PARK, C. K.; NOH, M. H.; PARK, T. H. Rheological properties of cementitious materials containing mineral admixtures. Cement and Concrete Research, v. 35, n. 5, p. 842-49, 2005. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2004.11.002

ARROUDJ, K.; DORBANI, S.; OUDJIT, M. N.; TAGNIT-HAMOU, A. Use of Algerian natural mineral deposit as supplementary cementitious materials. International Journal of Engineering Research in Africa, v. 34, p. 48-58, 2018. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/JERA.34.48.

ASTM-C90 Standard Specification for loadbearing concrete masonry units, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2016.

MEYYAPPAN, P. L.; AMUTHAKANNAN, P.; SUTHARSAN, R.; AHAMEDAZIK ALI, M. Utilization of M-Sand and Basalt fiber in concrete: an experimental study on strength and durability properties. IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering, v. 561, p. 012035, 2019. https://doi:10.1088/1757-899X/561/1/012035.

BASHA, S. A.; KUMAR, A. V.; TEJ, S. A.; MOHAN BABU, C. G. Evaluation of zeolite as supplementary cementing material. Materials Today, v. 45, p. 1427-1439, 2023. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2023.02.318

SHARMILA, P.; DHINAKARAN, G. Compressive strength, Porosity and sorptivity of ultra fine slag based high strength concrete. Construction and Building Materials, v. 120, p. 48-53, 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuild

mat.2016.05.090

MALHOTRA, D. M.; CARETTE, G. G. Performance of concrete incorporating limestone dust as partial replacement for sand. ACI. Structural Journal, v. 82, n. 3, p. 363-371, 1985. https://doi.org/10.14359/10344

ANITHA-SELVA, S.S.D.; GAYATHRI, R.; SWATHI, G. Experimental investigation on quarry dust concrete with chemical admixture. International Journal of Latest Research In Science and Technology, v. 2, p. 91-94, 2013. http://www.mnkjournals.com/ijlrst.htm

SETHY, K.; PASLA, D.; SAHOO, U. C. Effect of slag on the rheological and strength properties of self-compacting concrete. Key Engineering Materials, p. 399-404, 2014. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.629-630.399

LOKESWARAN, M. R.; NATARAJAN, C. Study on the properties of cement concrete using manufactured sand. Advances in Structural Engineering, p. 1803-1809, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-81-322-2187-6_138

DREUX, G.; FESTA, J. Nouveau guide du béton et de ses constituants (in freach). Editions Eyrolles, 1998. 418p.

EN 1992-1-1: Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures - Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings, European Committee for Standardisation, 2004, 227p.

ASTM C1074-93. (), Standard Practice for Estimating Concrete Strength by the Maturity Method, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 1993.

EZZIANE, K.; KADRI, E. H.; BOUGARA, A.; BENNACER, R. Analysis of mortars long term strength with supplementary cementitious materials cured at different temperatures. ACI. Structural Journal, v. 107, n. 4, p. 323-331, 2010.

DIDOUCHE, Z.; EZZIANE, K.; KADRI. E. H. Predicted of hydration heat and compressive strength of limestone cement mortar with different type of superplasticizer. Advances in Concrete Construction, v. 6, n. 6, p. 659-677, 2018. https://doi.org/10.12989/acc.2018.6.6.659

Published

2024-03-28

How to Cite

Nabil, G., Amer, A. A. M., M’hamed, A., & Karim, E. (2024). The impact of supplementary cementitious materials on the rheological and mechanical properties of mortars based on quarry waste sand. STUDIES IN ENGINEERING AND EXACT SCIENCES, 5(1), 770–798. https://doi.org/10.54021/seesv5n1-042