Extraction of Oil from Corn Germen using Ethanol as an Alternative Solvent


  • Bibiana Natchipia Bumba Pessoa
  • Teresa Matoso Manguanga Victor
  • António André Chivanga Barros




oil, extraction, ethanol, corn, solvents


Between the various types of vegetable oils consumed, the corn germ oil stands out, is characterized by benefits to human health and being considered raw material in Angola, due to the climatic characteristics of these regions. It is in this context that the present work was developed, which aims to implement methodologies to extract corn germ oil, having hydrated ethanol as solvent. The procedure consisted of the use of Soxhlet, as extractor, hydrated ethanol, with an operating temperature of 80ºC, when a vapor current of the solvent that rises to the condenser and the condensate descends to the carthusian with the corn germ where it is accumulated, extracts the oil, and returns to the base of this equipment. The procedure used showed high operational performance and extraction capacity was comparable to the data cited in the literature, based on the use of conventional solvents. The procedure resulted in 7 ml (6.3g) of corn oil with a specific mass of 900 kg/m3 and a refractive index of 1.469. These results show that the use of ethanol as a solvent provides the identification of alternative solvents, derived from biomass processing, with similar efficiency or better than the efficiency obtained when using conventional solvents.


Paes, M. C. D. Aspectos Físicos, Químicos e Tecnológicos do Grão de Milho. Dissertação; 2006. Sete Lagoas, Brazil.

Smith, C. W. Corn: Origin, History, Technology, and Production, 2004, 1st ed.; J. Betrán & E. C. A. Runge, Eds.

Veggi, Priscilla Carvalho. Obtaining plant extracts by different extraction methods: experimental study and process simulation. Dissertation (Masters), 2009, State University of Campinas. Faculty of Food Engineering, SP.

Scheneider, Rossana de Cassia de Souza. Castor Oil Extraction, Characterization and Transformation. Dissertação, 2002, University of Rio Grande do Sul. Rio Grande do Sul.

Anderson, B., and Almeida, H.; Corn Dry Milling: Processes, Products, and Applications. In S. O. Serna-Saldivar (Ed.), Corn: Chemistry and Technology, 2018, 3rd ed., pp. 405–433.

Ana, Q. P. L. A. Extração de óleo de gérmen de milho com solventes pressurizados. 2019. 75. Dissertação. Universidade Federal do Paraná, Paraná, Brazil.

Kalvelage, P.M.; Albuquerque, A.A.; Barros, A.A. Chivanga; Bertoli, S.L.; Internacional Jounal of Thermodynamic, 2017. 20; 159-164.

Ferreira, Marcela Cravo. Evaluation of the use of Ethanol for the Solid-Liquid Extraction of Soybean Oil and for the Production of Ethyl Biosiesel by Analysis of the Liquid-Liquid Balance. Dissertation, 2016, State University of Campinas Faculty of Food Engineering. Campinas.

Cipriano, Edmilson and Major, Tchilene and Pessela, Benevides and Chivanga Barros, Antonio André; Cognitive Sustainability, 2022, 1 (4). 2022. https://doi.org/10.55343/cogsust.36.

Major, T. C. F. da S., Cipriano, E. J., António, P. L., & Barros, A. A. C.; Brazilian Journal of Development, 2022. 8(4), 25711–25725. https://doi.org/10.34117/bjdv8n4-203.

Freixo, Ana Margarida dos Santos. Standardization of an Essential Oil Extraction process. Analysis of Critical Process Variables. Dissertation, 2018, Faculty of Sciences of Lisbon. Lisbon.

García-Lara, S., and Serna-Saldivar, S. O.; Corn History and Culture. In S. O. Serna-Saldivar (Ed.), Corn: Chemistry and Technology, 2018, 3rd ed., pp. 1–18.

Vargas, Carmen Escosteguy. Supercritical Extraction of Abajeru Essential Oil (chrysobalanus icaco). Graduate Program in Engineering. Dissertation, 2005, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Rausch, K. D., Hummel, D., Johnson, L. A., & May, J. B.; Wet Milling: The Basis for Corn Biorefineries. In S. O. Serna-Saldivar (Ed.), Corn: Chemistry and Technology, 2018, 3rd ed., pp. 501–535.

Navarro, S. L. B., Capellini, M. C., Aracava, K. K., & Rodrigues, C. E. C.; Food and Bioproducts Processing. 2016. 100, 185 – 194, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbp.2016.06.009.

Johnson, L. A., and Lusas, E. W.; Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 1983, 229–242.

Lohani, U. C., Fallahi, P., & Muthukumarappan, K.; Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 2015, 743–754.

Dos Santos, Etiandra, Tingeira, Teresa Saleme, Da Costa, Vicencia de Fátima Cristovão; Chiarello, Luana Marcele, Barros, António André Chivanga; F1000Research; 2021; https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.52925.1.

Moreau, D. Corn Oil. In: Shahidi, F. (Ed.) Bailey’s Industrial Oil and Fat Products. v.02. 6ta ed. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons. 2005. 149-172.

Kwiatkowski, J. R., & Cheryan, M. (2002). Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 2002, 825–830. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-002-0565-8.

Cheryan, M.; Shane, P.; Arana, F.; Germ oil extraction with ethanol. E.E.U.U., 2012, Patente de invenção, Nº. US 0,120,141,644.

Mohd-Setapar, S.H.; Nian-Yian, Lee and Mohd-Sharif, N.S.; Malaysian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences; 2014, Vol. 10, 1-6.

Ramalho, Hugo F.; Suarez, Paulo A. Z. A; Revista Virtual de Química, 2013, v. 5, nº.1, jan/fev. p. 2-15.

Barrera-Arellano, D., Badan-Ribeiro, A. P., & Serna-Saldivar, S. O.; Chemistry and Technology, 2018, 3rd ed., pp. 593–613. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978- 0-12-811971-6.00021-8.

Veljković, V. B., Biberdžić, M. O., Banković-Ilić, I. B., Djalović, I. G., Tasić, M. B., Nježić, Z. B., & Stamenković, O. S.; Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2018, 91, pp.531–548.

Porto, C., Porretto, E., Decorti, D.; Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 2013, 20:1076-1080.

Botton, V.; Riva D.; Simionatto, E. L.; Wiggers, V. R.; Ender, L.; Meier, H.F.; Barros, A. A. Chivanga; Quim Nova, 2012, 35 (4), pp. 677-682; 2012.




How to Cite

Pessoa, B. N. B., Victor, T. M. M., & Barros, A. A. C. (2023). Extraction of Oil from Corn Germen using Ethanol as an Alternative Solvent. STUDIES IN ENGINEERING AND EXACT SCIENCES, 4(1), 210–223. https://doi.org/10.54021/sesv4n1-014