Enteroparasites and risk factors for infection in native and exotic domiciled birds in the North Pioneer region of Paraná State, Brazil

Authors

  • Juliana de Medeiros Santos
  • Luciane Holsback
  • Celmira Calderón
  • Iris Teste Sonego
  • Ellen de Souza Marquez
  • Bruna Fernanda Firmo

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.54033/cadpedv21n5-063

Keywords:

Health Management, Intestinal Parasites, Sheather Technique, Wild Birds

Abstract

Although parasitic infections are common in free-ranging birds, they pose more significant threats in captivity. Free-ranging birds can live in large areas and have low exposure to parasitosis. On the other hand, birds kept in captivity, the high population density results in greater exposure, putting the animal's survival at risk. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of gastrointestinal endoparasites in domiciled birds (native and exotic) in the Mesoregion North Pioneer of Paraná. For this, 59 fecal samples were collected from 63 birds and analyzed by the centrifugation-flotation method in hypersaturated sucrose solution. Of the 63 birds, 38 (60%) were native, 22 (35%) exotic and 3 (5%) hybrids. Oocysts, eggs and larvae were found in 22.03% (13/59) of the samples analyzed. Higher occurrence of protozoa (20.34% - 12/59) than helminths (5.08% - 3/59) was observed, in which seven genera found: Isospora, Eimeria, Ancylostoma, Heterakis, Strongyloides, Cryptosporidium and one cestode. No endoparasites were found in the ten exotic birds and three native birds analyzed. It is concluded that the birds were infected by helminths and protozoa with a higher occurrence of coccidia, with the genus Isospora predominating. Probably due to the low sampling, there was no influence of keeping birds in individual cages compared to birds kept in collective cages, birds raised in rural or urban areas, nor of the adequacy and hygiene of drinkers and feeders, thermal comfort and hygiene of the birds' enclosures. Studies on parasites in wild birds are necessary to gain a more profound understanding of the intensity of anthropogenic influences on these animal species.

References

AKRAM, M.Z.; ZAMAN, M.A.; JALAL, H.; YOUSAF, S.; KHAN, A.Y.; FAROOQ, M. Z; TAUSEERF-UR-REHAMAN; SAKANDAR, A.; MUHMMAD, F.Q.; BOWMAN, D. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of captive birds in Punjab, Pakistan. Pakistan Veterinary Journal, v. 39, n.1, p. 132-134, 2018.

ALLEN, P.C.; FETTERER, R.H. Recent advances in biology of Eimeria species and diagnosisand control of infection with these coccidian parasites of poultry. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, v. 15, n. 1, 2002.

BARRETO, C.; VILELA, D.A.R.; HOURI, B.F.; LARA, L.B.; TORRES, A.C.D.; SILVA, A.S.G.; FILHO, R.P.L.C.; COSTA, C.S.; MARTINS, N.R.S. New Isospora and Host Species in Brazilian Passerines. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science, v. 22, n. 1, 2020.

BECK, R.M.; REIS, S.T.J.; ROCHA, N.S. Retrospective Study of Occurrence of Crimes against Fauna Attended by Environmental Military Police, State of São Paulo, 2012 – 2015. Brazilian Journal of Forensic Sciences, Medical Law and Bioethics, v. 6, n. 3, p. 453-466, 2017.

BERTO, B.P; FLAUSINO, W.; MCLNTOSH, D.; TEIXEIRA-FILHO, W.L.; LOPES, C.W.G. Coccidia of New World passerine birds (Aves Passeriformes): a review of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 and Isospora Schneider, 1881 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae). Systematic Parasitology, v. 80, p. 159-204, 2011.

BEZERRA-SANTOS, M.A.; MENDOZA-ROLDAN, J.A.; THOMPSON, R.C.A.; DANTAS-TORRES, F.; OTRANTO, D. Illegal Wildlife Trade: A Gateway to Zoonotic Infectious Diseases. Trends in Parasitology, v. 37, p. 181-184, 2021.

BRITO, A.S.A.; GUILHERME, E.; SANTOS, F.G.A.; MESQUITA, R.P.; GOMES F.A. Endoparasites of wild birds from campus area and zoobotanical park, at the Federal University of Acre, Rio Branco – Acre. Arquivos Ciências Veterinárias e Zoologia da UNIPAR, v. 20, n. 3, p. 117-122, 2017.

CAMPOS, S.D.E.; MACHADO, C.S.C.; SOUZA, T.V.T.; CEVAROLLI, R.C.; ALMOSNY, N.R.P. Extraintestinal isosporoid coccidian causing atoxoplasmosis in captive green-winged saltators: clinical and hematological features. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira, v. 37, n. 11, p. 1327-1330, 2017.

CARNEIRO, M.B.; JÚNIOR, A.C.; MARTINS, I.V.F. Avaliação coproparasitológica e clínica de aves silvestres e exóticas mantidas em criatórios particulares no município de Alegres-ES. Ciência Animal Brasileira, v. 12, n. 3, p. 525-529, 2011.

CARRERA-JÁTIVA, P.D.; MORGAN, E.R.; BARROWS, M.; JIMÉNEZ-UZCÁTEGUI, G.; TITUAÑA, J.R.A. Free-ranging avifauna as a source of generalist parasites for captive birds in zoological settings: An overview of parasite records and potential for cross-transmission. Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research, v. 7, n. 3, p. 482-500, 2020.

CARRERA-JÁTIVA, P.D.; MORGAN, E.R.; BARROWS. M.; WRONSKI, T. Gastrointestinal parasites in captive and free-ranging birds and potential cross-transmission in a zoo environment. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, v. 49, n. 1, p. 116-128, 2018.

COSTA, I.A.; COELHO, C.D.; BUENO, C.; FERREIRA, I.; FREIRE, R.B. Ocorrência de parasitos gastrintestinais em aves silvestres no município de Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Ciência Animal Brasileira, v. 11, n. 4, p. 914-922, 2010.

CUNHA, M.J.R. Ocorrência e identificação molecular de Cryptosporidium spp. e Giardia spp. em aves silvestres brasileiras. 2013. Dissertação (Mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Uberlândia, 2013.

EL-SHAHAWY, I.S.; ABOU, E.F. Enteric parasites of Egyptian captive birds: A general coprological survey with new records of the species. Tropical Biomedicine, v. 32, n. 4, p. 650-658, 2015.

FAYER, R. Taxonomy and species delimitation in Cryptosporidium. Experimental Parasitology, v. 124, p. 90-97, 2010.

FERNANDES-FERREIRA, H.; MENDONÇA, S.V.; ALBANO, C.; FERREIRA, F.S.; ALVES, R.R.N. Hunting, use and conservation of birds in Northeast Brazil. Biodiversity Conservation, v. 21, p. 221-244, 2012.

FERREIRA, L.F.; MORTEO, R.E.; SILVA, J.R. Padronização de técnicas para exame parasitológico das fezes. Jornal Brasileiro de Medicina, v. 6, p. 241-57, 1962.

FREITAS, M.F.L.; OLIVEIRA, J.B.; CAVALCANTI, M.D.B.; LEITE, A.S.; MAGLHAES, V.S.; OLIVEIRA, R.A.; EVENCIO, A.S. Parásitos gastrointestinales de aves silvestres en cautiverio en el estado de Pernambunco, Brasil. Parasitologia Latinoamericana, v. 57, p. 50-54, 2002.

GLOBOKAR, M.; FISCHER, D.; PANTCHEV, N. Occurrence of endoparasites in captive birds between 2005 to 2011 as determined by faecal flotation and review of literature. Berliner und Münchener Tierärztliche Wochenschrift, v. 130, n. 11, p. 461-473, 2017.

HILL, S.P.; BROOM, D.M. Measuring Zoo animal welfare: theory and practice. Zoo Biology; v. 28, p. 531-544, 2009.

HOLSBACK, L.; CARDOSO, M.J.L.; FAGNANI, R.; PATELLI, T.H.C. Natural infection by endoparasites among free-living wild animals. Revista Brasileira Parasitologia Veterinária, v. 22, n. 2, p. 302-306, 2013.

JOSEPH, V. Infectious and parasitic diseases of captive passerines. Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine, v. 12, p. 21-28, 2003.

MAGALHÃES-MATOS, P.C.; SILVA, M.B.V.; SOUZA, P.G.S.; LIMA, D.H.S.; MORAIS, R.; FARIAS, D.M.; ALVARENGA, L.C.O.; GABRIEL, A.M.; OLIVEIRA, W.B.L.; GÓES-CAVALCANTE, G.; SCOFIELD, A. Occurrence of eggs and oocysts of gastrointestinal parasites in passerine birds kept in captivity in Para State, Brazil. Ciência Rural, v. 46, n. 12, 2016.

MARIETTO-GONÇALVES, G.A.; MARTINS, T.F.; LIMA, E.T.; LOPES, R.S.; FILHO, R.L.A. Prevalência de endoparasitas em amostras fecais de aves silvestres e exóticas examinadas no laboratório de ornitopatologia e no laboratório de enfermidades parasitárias da FMVZ-UNESP/Botucatu, SP. Ciência Animal Brasileira, v. 10, n. 1, p. 349-354, 2009.

MELO, Y.J.O.; FERRAZ, H.T.; SATURNINO, K.C.; SILVA, T.D.P.; BRAGA, I.A.; AMARAL, A.V.C.; MEIRELLES-BARTOLI, R.B.; RAMOS, D.G.S. Gastrointestinal parasites in captive and free-living wild birds in Goiania Zoo. Brazilian Journal of Biology, v. 82, 2022.

MOURA, G.H.F.; NASCIMENTO, G.S.; OLIVEIRA, P.R.F.; SANTANA, V.S.; SHIMABUKURO, A.; VALENÇA, Y.M.; CALABUIG; C.; MELO, R.P.B.; MOTA, R.A. Occurrence of Apicomplexa protozoa in wild birds in the Northeast region of Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology, v. 32, n. 2, 2023.

OMBUGADU, A.; ECHOR, B.O.; JIBRIL, A.B.; ANGBALAGA, G.A.; LAPANG, M.P.; MICAH, E.M.; NJILA, H.L.; ISAH, L.; NKUP, C.D.; DOGO, K.S.; ANZAKU, A.A. Impact of Parasites in Captive Birds: A Review. Current Research in Environment and Biodiversity, v. 2019, n. 4, 2018.

PAGE, D.C.; HADDAD, K. Coccidial infections in birds. Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine, v. 4, p. 138-144, 1995.

PAPINI, R.; GIRIVETTO, M.; MARANGI, M.; MANCIANTI, F.; GIANGASPERO, A. Endoparasite Infections in Pet and Zoo Birds in Italy. The Scientific World Journal, 2012:253127, 2012.

PENG, S.; BROOM, D.M. The Sustainability of Keeping Birds as Pets: Should Any Be Kept? Animals, v. 11, n. 582, 2021.

QI, M.; WANG, R.; NING, C.; LI, X.; ZHANG, L.; JIAN, F.; SUN, Y.; XIAO, L. Cryptosporidium spp. in pet birds: Genetic diversity and potential public health significance. Experimental Parasitology, v. 128, p. 336-340, 2011.

RYAN, U. Cryptosporidium in birds, fish and amphibians. Experimental Parasitology, v. 124, p. 113-120, 2010.

SALEM, H.M.; SALEM, M.A.; SOLIMAN, M.M.; ALTHOBAITI, S.A.; KHAFAGA, A.K.; EL-TAHAN, A.M.; EL-SAADONY, M.T.; ATTIA, M.M. Parasitological and histopathological examination of cocktail lovebirds infected with Eimeria Aratinga (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae). Poultry Science, v. 101, 2022.

SANTOS, P.M.S.; SILVA, S.G.N.; FONSECA, C.F.; OLIVEIRA, J.B. Parasitos de aves e mamíferos silvestres em cativeiro no estado de Pernambuco. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira, v. 35, n. 9, p. 788-794, 2015.

SNAK, A.; LENZI, P.F.; AGOSTINI, K.M.; DELGADO, L.E.; MONTANUCCI, C.R.; ZABOTT, M.V. Coproparasitological Analysis of Captive Wild Birds. Ciência Animal. Brasileira, v. 15, n. 4, p. 502-507, 2014.

SOUZA, L.S.; ANDRADE, A.M.F.; GUILHERME, E.; SANTOS, F.G.A. Endoparasites in wild birds in the Brazilian Amazon. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 2019.

SPRENGER, L.K.; YOSHITANI, U.Y.; BUZATTI, A.; MOLENTO, M.B. Occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in wild animals in State of Paraná, Brazil. Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences, v. 90, n. 01, p. 231-238, 2017.

URQUHART, G.M.; ARMOUR, J.; DUNCAN, J.L.; DUNN, A.M.; JENNINGS, F.W. Parasitologia veterinária. Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara Koogan, 1990, 306 p.

VASCONCELOS, O.T. Parasitoses em aves de produção industrial. In: Berchieri JA, Macari M. Doenças das aves. Campinas: Facta, p. 423-428, 2000.

XIAO, L.; FAYER, R. Molecular characterization of species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium and Giardia and assessment of zoonotic transmission. International Journal for Parasitology, v. 38, p. 1239-1255, 2008

Downloads

Published

2024-05-10

How to Cite

Santos, J. de M., Holsback, L., Calderón, C., Sonego, I. T., Marquez, E. de S., & Firmo, B. F. (2024). Enteroparasites and risk factors for infection in native and exotic domiciled birds in the North Pioneer region of Paraná State, Brazil . Caderno Pedagógico, 21(5), e3980. https://doi.org/10.54033/cadpedv21n5-063

Issue

Section

Articles