Investigation of the impact of Covid-19 pandemic in motor and visuomotor performance of Brazilian schoolchildren


  • Milena Sansone Duarte Maciel
  • Giseli Donadon Germano



educational evaluation, pandemic, motor skill, visuomotor skills


Motor skills are important for building autonomy in daily life activities and school activities, being acquired through lived experiences and neurocognitive maturation. However, with the pandemic, there was a period of social restrictions. With the COVID-19 pandemic, Brazilian schoolchildren stopped attending school in person from March 2020 to July 2021. The effects of this change are still largely unknown, as the school is the main means of socialization, communication and to practice motor activities for many children. Therefore, this study aimed investigate, correlate and find predictors of gross and fine motor proficiencies and visual perception between pre- and post-pandemic schoolchildren. This was a cross-sectional study with a convenience sample. Forty schoolchildren participated in this study, being divided into groups GI (20 schoolchildren, from the 1st and 2nd grades, evaluated after remote teaching); GII (20 schoolchildren, paired with GI, in relation to sex and chronological age, being evaluated before the Pandemic). They underwent the procedures of motor Proficiency and visual perception development test. GI showed lower performance when compared to GII for motor and visual variables. No correlation was found between the motor and visual variables. Regression analysis explained 86.5% to 98.7% of the variance of motor performance. The visual variables of did not influence motor performance. Regression analysis explained between 75.8% and 96.7% of the variance of the visual performance. GI showed lower performance when compared to GII for motor and visual variables. The presence of several predictors for the classification of motor and visual performance suggests the presence of neurodevelopmental delay, which might be aggravated by social isolation resulting from the Pandemic, which must be seen as a warning sign for speech therapists and pedagogues.


BAARS, Renata. Levantamento sobre crianças em situações de risco no Brasil. Biblioteca Digital da Câmara dos Deputados, Brasília, 2009.

BOBBIO, Tatiana Godoy et al. Factors associated with inadequate fine motor skills in Brazilian students of different socioeconomic status. Perceptual and motor skills, v. 105, n. 3_suppl, p. 1187-1195, Available in:

/pms.105.4.1187- . Access at: 14 fev 2024.

BRUININKS, Robert H.; BRUININKS, Brett D. BOT2: Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency. Pearson, Assessments. 2005.

ČILLÍK, Ivan; WILLWÉBER, Tomáš. Physical development and body composition parameters in 4-11-year-old children. Health Problems of Civilization, v. 12, n. 1, p. 49-56, 2018. Available in: Access at: 14 fev 2024.

COHEN, Erez James; BRAVI, Riccardo; BAGNI, Maria Angela; MINCIACCHI, Diego. Precision in drawing and tracing tasks: Different measures for different aspects of fine motor control. Human Movement Science, v. 61, p. 177-188, 2018. Available in: Access at: 14 fev 2024.

CRAFT, Edward; SCHÜTZE, Hartmut; NIEBUR, Ernst; RÜDIGER, von der Heydt. A neural model of figure–ground organization. Journal of neurophysiology, v. 97, n. 6, p. 4310-4326, 2007. Available in:

1152/jn.00203.2007 . Access at: 14 fev 2024.

DIAMOND, Adele. Executive functions. In: Handbook of clinical neurology. Elsevier, 2020. p. 225-240.

DIGHE, Apoorva D. et al. Assessment of upper limb coordination using bruininks-oseretsky test of motor proficiency, (bot-2), in 5-15 years school going children. International Journal of Healthcare and Biomedical Research, v. 5, n. 3, p. 62-69, 2017. Available in:



tion-bot-2-in-5-15-years-school-going-children.pdf Access at: 14 fev 2024

FOLOSTINA, Ruxandra; IACOB, Claudia I. Impact of COVID-19 Lockdown on Children with Developmental Disabilities and Their Parents. Cypriot Journal of Educational Sciences, v. 16, n. 4, p. 1878-1892, 2021. Available in: Access at: 14 fev 2024.

FONSECA, Fernando Richardi da; BELTRAME, Thaís Silva; TKAC, Claudio Marcelo. Relationship between motor development level and variables of the development context in children. Journal of Physical Education, v. 19, n. 2, p. 183-194. Available in:

cle/view/5548 Access at: 14 fev. 2024.

FONSECA, Vítor. Psicomotricidade e alto rendimento. Psicologia, v. 10, n. 1/2, p. 73-88, 1995. Available in: Access at: 14 fev 2024.

GALLAHUE, David L.; OZMUN, John C.; GOODWAY, Jackie D. Compreendendo o desenvolvimento motor: bebês, crianças, adolescentes e adultos. AMGH Editora, 2013.

GERMANO, Giseli Donadon; CAPELLINI, Simone Aparecida. Use of technological tools to evaluate handwriting production of the alphabet and pseudocharacters by Brazilian students. Clinics, v. 74, 2019. Available in: Access at: 14 fev 2024.

GESELL, A. A criança dos 5 aos 10 anos. São Paulo: Martins Fontes, 1985.

HAMMILL, D. D.; PEARSON, N.A.; VORESS J. K. DTVP III- Development Test of Visual Perception III. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed. 2014.

HOARE, Deborah; LARKIN, Dawne. Kinaesthetic abilities of clumsy children. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, v. 33, n. 8, p. 671-678, 1991. Available in: Access at: 14 fev 2024.

HOOFMAN, Jacob; SECORD, Elizabeth. The effect of COVID-19 on education. Pediatric Clinics, v. 68, n. 5, p. 1071-1079, 2021. Available in: https://www. Access at: 14 fev 2024.

LAI, Mun Yee; CARSON, Karyn. Motor-Reduced Visual Perception and Visual‐Motor Integration of Chinese-Speaking Children With Dyslexia. Curriculum and Teaching, v. 34, n. 1, p. 53-70, 2019. Available in: https://www.ingentaconnect.

com/content/jnp/ct/2019/00000034/00000001/art00005 Access at: 14 fev 2024

PAYNE, V. Gregory; ISAACS, Larry D. Human motor development: A lifespan approach. Routledge, 2017.

PIAGET, Jean; INHELDER, Bärbel. Psicología del niño. Ediciones Morata, 1966.

REPP, Bruno H. Tapping in synchrony with a perturbed metronome: The phase correction response to small and large phase shifts as a function of tempo. Journal of Motor Behavior, v. 43, n. 3, p. 213-227, 2011. Available in: Access at: 14 fev 2024.

ROEBERS, Claudia M. et al. The relation between cognitive and motor performance and their relevance for children’s transition to school: A latent variable approach. Human movement science, v. 33, p. 284-297, 2014.284-297. Available in: Access at: 14 fev 2024.

SCHNECK, Colleen M. Visual perception. Occupational Therapy for Children. sixth ed. Mosby Inc, p. 373-403, 2013.

SGRO, Francesco; QUINTO, Antonella; PLATANIA, Fabiana; LIPOMA, Mario. Assessing the impact of a physical education project based on games approach on the actual motor competence of primary school children. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, v. 19, p. 781-786, 2019. Available in: http://www.efsupit.

ro/images/stories/iunie2019/Art%20111.pdf Access at: 14 fev 2024.

TOUS-RAL, Josep Maria; MUIÑOS, Ruben; LIUTSKO, Liudmila; FORERO, Carlos G. Effects of sensory information, movement direction, and hand use on fine motor precision. Perceptual and Motor Skills, v. 115, n. 1, p. 261-272, 2012. Available in: Access at: 14 fev 2024.

ULRICH, Dale Allen; SANFORD, Christopher B. TGMD-2: Test of gross motor development. Pro-ed, 2000.

VALENTINI, Nadia Cristina et al. Prevalência de déficits motores e desordem coordenativa desenvolvimental em crianças da região Sul do Brasil. Revista Paulista de Pediatria, v. 30, p. 377-384, 2012. Available in:

/S0103-05822012000300011 Access at: 14 fev 2024.

VEDUL‐KJELSÅS, V. et al. The relationship between motor competence, physical fitness and self‐perception in children. Child: care, health and development, v. 38, n. 3, p. 394-402, 2012.Available in

j.1365-2214.2011.01275.x Access at: 14 fev 2024.




How to Cite

Maciel, M. S. D., & Germano, G. D. (2024). Investigation of the impact of Covid-19 pandemic in motor and visuomotor performance of Brazilian schoolchildren. Caderno Pedagógico, 21(3), e3026.